Academic Books & Online Resources



All copyright permission must be cleared and, if necessary, paid for by the author; this includes applications and payments to DACS (Data Access Control System), ARS (Artists Rights Society), and similar licensing agencies where appropriate. It is also the author’s responsibility to include acknowledgements as stipulated by particular institutions.


Submission of figures in an electronic format will help us to ensure that your work is produced to the highest possible standard. This page contains information on how best to prepare your artwork for electronic submission.

Most figure file formats are acceptable, although TIFF is preferable.

TIFFs (Tagged Image File Format) are used for bitmap, greyscale, and colour images. To save files in TIFF format, go to the ‘Save As’ or ‘Export’ commands under ‘File’.

Before submitting artwork, please make sure that your image(s) fulfil the following criteria:


A number of different file formats are acceptable, including:

*preferred file format. Note that .jpg is not a file format listed as files produced as JPGs condense every time they are opened (and thus lose quality).

Specific Types of Artwork

Bar graphs

Avoid the use of gray or color in bar graphs. Instead, please use solid black, solid white, and patterned (e.g., horizontally or diagonally striped) bars.


Line art

Line art is best reproduced when it is submitted as crisp black-and-white images and contains no unnecessary gray shading.

Line art


If your image requires the use of many lines (as line graphs often do), please choose patterns that are easily distinguished from each other. Patterns with similar characteristics are hard to differentiate after reduction.


For additional useful information on preparing your figures for publication, go to


Follow these rules for figures:

Figure table

Figures must:

A Note about Resolution (PPI vs DPI) and Quality

The quality of an image is not dependent upon DPI. Typically when an image is of low quality (even though the resolution is within standards), the image contains pixelated text. This means that the figure should be redrawn using a standard font and that care should be taken to ensure the font is embedded.

DPI pertains to the print version of the image; PPI to the online version. The compositor will take care to convert the accepted figure files accordingly. It is important to note that maximum size should be set at 1081 width by 1280 height for PPI / 600 DPI.

Graphics downloaded from the Web are not acceptable for print reproduction. These graphics are low-resolution images (usually 72 dpi) that are suitable for screen display but far below acceptable standards for print reproduction.

To find out more on figure submission, please visit the Instructions to Authors for the particular journal to which you are submitting. View the full list of Journals.