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NAR Molecular Biology Database Collection entry number 1290
Yang, I.S.1,2, Lee, J.-L.2, Lee, J.S.1, Mitchell, W.P.3,4, Oh, H.-B.2, Kang, C.2, and Kim, K.H.1
1Department of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, College of Science and Technology, Korea University, Chungnam, Korea.
2Center for Infectious Diseases, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Seoul, Korea.
3Experimental Therapeutics Center, 31 Biopolis Street, Singapore.
4Division of Information Systems, School of Computer Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.

Database Description

Influenza is one of the most important respiratory infectious diseases of humans. It is estimated that influenza is responsible for 250,000 to 500,000 deaths annually. Genome sequences of currently circulating virus isolates are important sources of information about influenza. Significant efforts have been made to build public resources of influenza viruses such as the Influenza Virus Resource ( at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), the Influenza Sequence Database at Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Influenza Virus Database ( at the Beijing Institute of Genomics, and the BioHealthBase Bioinformatics Resource Center ( (1-4). An increasing number of genomes of influenza viruses have been sequenced in Asia in recent years. Southern China has long been considered a potential epicenter for emergence of pandemic influenza viruses and becomes one of the major foci for viral surveillance.

Recent Developments

In order to leverage the wealth of information, we have developed an integrated user friendly relational database, Influenza Sequence and Epitope Database (ISED) (1), particularly focusing on the genomes of the seasonal influenza viruses from Asian countries. We have added value by implementing a suite of bioinformatics tools that can be used to analyze and visualize the influenza data. This freely accessible resource will augment influenza research and contribute to improved public heath.


We wish to acknowledge the technical support from Mr. C. H. Gong at the department of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics and Mr. J. H. Yeom of the E-Front, Seoul, Korea. This work was supported by the Korea National Institute of Health and a grant from the BioGreen 21 Program and the Basic Research Program of the Korea Science and Engineering Foundation.


1. Bao, Y., Bolotov, P., Dernovoy, D., Kiryutin, B., Zaslavsky, L., Tatusova, T., Ostell, J., and Lipman, D. (2008) The influenza virus resource at the national center for biotechnology information. J. Virol. 82, 596-601.
2. Macken, C., Lu, H., Goodman, J. and Boykin, L. (2001) In Osterhaus, A.D.M.E., Cox, N., and Hampson, A.W. (eds) Options for the control of influenza IV. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, pp. 103-106.
3. Chang, S., Zhang, J., Liao, X., Zhu, X., Wang, D., Zhu, J., Feng, T., Zhu, B., Gao, G.F., Wang, J. et al. (2007) Influenza virus database (IVDB): an integrated information resource and analysis platform for influenza virus research. Nucl. Acids Res. 35, D376-D380.
4. Squires, B., Macken, C., Garcia-Sastre, A., Godbole, S., Noronha, J., Hunt, V., Chang, R., Larsen, C.N., Klem, E., Biersack, K. et al. (2008) BioHealthBase: informatics support in the elucidation of influenza virus host-pathogen interactions and virulence. Nucl. Acids Res. 36, D497-D503.

Subcategory: Viral genome databases

Go to the abstract in the NAR 2009 Database Issue.
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