NAR Molecular Biology Database Collection entry number 1736
Pal, C.1, Bengtsson-Palme, J.1, Rensing, C.2, Kristiansson, E.3, Larsson, DGJ.1
1Department of Infectious Diseases, Institute of Biomedicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, SE-413 46, Sweden. 2Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, DK-1871, Denmark. 3Department of Mathematical Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Database Description

Antibiotic resistance has become a major human health concern due to widespread use, misuse and overuse of antibiotics. In addition to antibiotics, antibacterial biocides and metals can contribute to the development and maintenance of antibiotic resistance in bacterial communities through co-selection (1-2). We have developed BacMet – a manually curated database of antibacterial biocide- and metal-resistance genes based on an in-depth review of the scientific literature. The database will facilitate the research to understand co- and cross-resistance of biocide and metals to antibiotics within bacterial genomes, as well as in complex microbial communities (metagenomes) from different environments and understand the development of tolerance mechanisms of bacteria towards commercial biocidal and metal-based products. As of 30 October 2013, the BacMet database contains 470 experimentally verified resistance genes. In addition, the database also contains 25,477 potential resistance genes collected from public sequence repositories (3-5) and identified by their sequence similarity to genes with verified resistance function. All resistance genes in the BacMet database have been organized according to their molecular function and induced resistance phenotype. The database is freely available at


The work was supported by the Swedish Research Council FORMAS; the Swedish Research Council VR, and the Gothenburg Centre for Marine Research.


1. SCENIHR (Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks) (European Commission) (2009) Assessment of the Antibiotic Resistance Effects of Biocides, 1-87.
2. SCENIHR (Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks) (European Commission) (2010) Research Strategy to address the knowledge gaps on the antimicrobial resistance effects of biocides, 1-34.
3. NCBI Resource Coordinators (2013) Database resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information. Nucleic acids research, 41, D8-D20.
4. Uniprot Consortium (2013) Update on activities at the Universal Protein Resource (UniProt) in 2013. Nucleic acids research, 41, D43-47.
5. Benson, D.A., Cavanaugh, M., Clark, K., Karsch-Mizrachi, I., Lipman, D.J., Ostell, J. and Sayers, E.W. (2013) GenBank. Nucleic acids research, 41, D36-42.

Subcategory: Drugs and drug design

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