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Submitting your manuscript online

Important Note: If you submit your manuscript online, please do not submit a hard copy to the editorial office or send your manuscripts by e-mail.


  1. Follow the Instructions to Authors regarding the format of your manuscript and references. You can download the current reference style for this journal here.
  2. Prepare your manuscript using a word processing program and save it as a .doc or .docx file. Files in these formats will be converted to .pdf format upon submission.
  3. Tables and illustrations should be prepared in separate files to the main manuscript. Please do so using applications capable of generating high-resolution files (1200 d.p.i. for line drawings and 300 d.p.i. for colour and half-tone artwork). The printing process requires your figures to be at this resolution if your paper is accepted and printed. For useful information on preparing your figures for publication, go to A list of acceptable file types for tables and illustrations is available on the Instructions to Authors webpage.
  4. Prepare any other files that are to be submitted for review, including any supplementary material. The permitted formats for these files are the same as for manuscripts and figures. As with tables and illustrations, supplementary material will form part of the single .pdf file that is created for use in the peer review process. It is also possible to upload LaTeX files but these will not be automatically converted to .pdf format (and are therefore discouraged). The journal staff, editors and reviewers will only be able to view these unconverted files if they have the appropriate software, which cannot be guaranteed.
  5. When naming your files, please use simple filenames and avoid special characters and spaces. If you are a Macintosh user, you must also type the three-letter extension at the end of the file name you choose (e.g. .doc, .rtf, .jpg, .gif, .tif, .eps, etc.).
  6. The online submission software will automatically create a single .pdf file containing your main text, tables, and reduced-resolution versions of any figures you have submitted. This document will be used when your manuscript undergoes peer review. Your submitted files will appear in this .pdf sequentially, as specified by you on the submission page, and you will have an opportunity to enter figure captions/legends and to check the .pdf file prior to final submission. Please make sure that you proof the converted pdf file so no material is missing, and there are no conversion errors.


Now that your files are ready, visit the online submission web site

  1. First, you will need to log into the system. Note: Before you begin, you should be sure you are using version 4.0 or higher of Netscape or Internet Explorer. If you have an earlier version, you can download a free upgrade using the icons found at the bottom of our login screen.
    • If you know your login details (i.e. you have submitted or reviewed a manuscript on this system before), use your User ID and Password to log on.
    • If you do not know your login details, check to see if you are already registered by clicking on the 'Check for existing account' button and following the on-screen instructions. If you are not already registered, you can register by clicking on the 'Create a new account' button on the login screen and following the on-screen instructions.
    • If you have trouble finding manuscripts or have other problems with your account do not create another account. Instead, please contact Scholar One Customer Support (see below).
  2. To submit a new manuscript, go to the 'Author Center', click on the blue star button which says ‘Click here to submit a new manuscript’ and then follow the on-screen instructions. There are up to 7 steps for you to follow to submit your manuscript. You move from one step to the next by clicking on the 'Next' button on each screen or back to the previous screen by clicking on the 'Previous' button. Please note that if you click on the 'Back' or 'Forward' button on your browser, the information you have entered will not be saved. At any stage you can stop the submission process by clicking on the 'Main Menu' or the ‘Author Dashboard’link. Everything you have typed into the system will be saved. , and the partially completed submission will appear under 'unsubmitted manuscripts' in your 'Author Center'. To return to the submission process you will need to click on the button 'Continue Submission' against the relevant manuscript title.
  3. When submitting your manuscript, please enter your manuscript data into the relevant fields, following the detailed instructions given at the top of each page. You may like to have the original word processing file available so that you can copy and paste the title and abstract into the required fields. You will also be required to provide email addresses for your co-authors, so please have these to hand when you logon to the site.
    • Enter individual files using the 'Browse' buttons below and select the appropriate 'File content' type.
    • Select the document's designation from the pull-down menu.
    • When the upload of each file is completed, you will see a confirmation window and will be prompted to provide figure legends and 'file tags' that will link figures to texts in the HTML proof of your main document.
    • Once you have uploaded all files, indicate the order in which they should appear in your paper. This will determine the order in which they appear in the consolidated PDF used for peer review.
    • After the successful upload of your text and images, you will need to view and proof your manuscript. Please do this by clicking on the blue HTML button or a PDF button.
    • If the files have not been uploaded to your satisfaction, go back to the file upload screen where you can remove the files you do not want, and repeat the upload process.
  4. From the files you submit to make up your manuscript, the system creates and stores separately two types of documents:
    • Files for Review. These will be the files viewable to the editor and reviewers of your manuscript. The system will automatically convert your text documents (any document in .doc, .rtf or .ps format) into .pdf and make that newly converted document accessible for review, leaving the originally uploaded document under the second column, 'Files for Production'. [Note: PDF files are readable with Adobe Acrobat Reader, available for download from the main login screen of ScholarOne Manuscripts, as well as from] The system will also convert and save under 'Files for Review' all files with images (figures, charts, graphs, etc.) in.jpg, .gif, .tif and .eps format, converting them into smaller .jpg images, leaving the original files under 'Files for Production'. The smaller versions of your image will include in the filename '_sm.jpg'. The system will also save under 'Files for Review' any documents which are uploaded in formats that it cannot convert.
    • Files for Production. These are all the original word-processor files and figures you uploaded. Not listed here will be those files you designated for review but submitted in a format that cannot be converted by the system.
  5. After the successful upload of your text and images, it will be possible for you to view and proof your manuscript now located on the web site. The on-screen version of your manuscript you review at the journal's web site will also be the version accessed by the editor and the reviewers.
  6. If the files have not been uploaded to your satisfaction, click on the 'Previous' button to move back to the file upload screen where you can remove the files you do not want, and repeat the upload process.
  7. When you are satisfied with the uploaded manuscript then click on the 'Submit' button. It is not until this button is pushed that the manuscript and all of the associated information (i.e. contributing authors, institutions, etc.) is linked together and the manuscript is given a manuscript number. Once the manuscript is submitted it is not possible to undo the submission.
  8. After the manuscript has been submitted you will receive an email confirmation stating that your manuscript was successfully submitted. This email will also give the assigned manuscript number, which is used in all correspondence. If you do not receive this email, your manuscript will not have been successfully submitted to the journal and the paper cannot progress to peer review. If this is the case your manuscript will still be sitting in the 'Partially Submitted Manuscripts' section of your 'Author Centre' awaiting your attention.
  9. If you return to your 'Author Centre' you will notice that your newly submitted manuscript can be found in the 'Submitted Manuscripts' area. Among the information listed there, the 'Processing Status' section provides information on the status of your manuscript as it moves through the review process.


  1. Logon to the online submission web site as before and, in the 'Author Center', click on 'Manuscripts with Decisions'. You will then see the title of any manuscripts you submitted that have decisions. If the decision requires submission of a revised paper, click on “create a revision.” You will reach the revision submission procedure.
  2. First, you will be asked to respond to the decision letter for the original submission. The next steps will be the same as the original submission procedure. When you reach the File Upload stage, you will see that the files from the original submission will already be uploaded for you. Please delete any files that you revised, and upload the new files.
  3. If you need to logout during the submission procedure and need to continue the process, go to the ‘Author Center’ and click on ‘Revised Manuscripts in Draft.’ Click on the blue ‘Continue Submission’ button, and you may resume submission.

Getting help If you experience any problems during the online submission process please consult the Author's User Guide, which provides more detailed submission instructions, and 'movie tutorials' explaining how to submit your paper. Alternatively, please contact the journal's editorial office who will be pleased to assist you.Frequently Asked Questions page. You can also contact the Scholar One support line by email ( or telephone (+1 434 817 2040 x167).

Published on behalf of


John Hyman,
The Queen's College, Oxford
Elisabeth Schellekens, Uppsala University

For Authors

Oxford OpenRCUK

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