Instructions to authors
Please note that the journal now encourages authors to complete their copyright license to publish form online.
OPEN ACCESS OPTION FOR AUTHORS
CORRESPONDENCE AND MANUSCRIPT SUBMISSION
Manuscripts must be submitted online in a double-spaced, blinded format, with pages numbered, in at least 12-point type, do not insert line numbers. Any manuscript without page numbers will not be considered and will be returned immediately to the author. Please note that a lack of proper formatting, spelling, and reference citations will slow down a paper’s review and its ultimate disposition, so these items should be checked before submission. Once the manuscript has been prepared according to the information below, please visit http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/aje to submit. Instructions on how to submit your manuscript online can be found by clicking here.
When uploading the manuscript to the Web site, please delete any text reference to the paper's authors, affiliations, and acknowledgments. Each manuscript, when submitted, must include a word count for both the abstract and the text, exclusive of references, tables, and figure legends. If the manuscript cannot be submitted online, please contact the American Journal of Epidemiology, Candler Building, 111 Market Place, Suite 840, Baltimore, MD 21202-6709, USA (telephone: 410-223-1649) for further instructions. The author who submits the manuscript will remain the contact author throughout the entire publishing process. At the time of submission, the corresponding author must confirm that all authors meet the authorship criteria (see “Authorship” below) and have seen and approved of the paper. When the final revision of the manuscript has been accepted, the senior author must sign a Publication Agreement (see "Copyright") and a statement accepting responsibility for publication charges.
Authorship credit should be based on criteria developed by the International Committee for Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE): (1) substantial contributions to conception and design, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; (2) drafting the article or reviewing it and, if appropriate, revising it critically for important intellectual content; (3) final approval of the version to be published. Authors should meet conditions (1) and (2) and (3). In addition, each author must certify that he or she has participated sufficiently in the work to believe in its overall validity and to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of its content.
Responses to Invited Commentaries and Letter Replies: The lead authors of responses are responsible for contacting all authors of the original paper to ascertain whether they wish to be included in the reply.
The cover letter must briefly explain each author’s individual contributions. For example, “Author A designed the study and directed its implementation, including quality assurance and control. Author B helped supervise the field activities and designed the study’s analytic strategy. Author C helped conduct the literature review and prepare the Methods and the Discussion sections of the text.”
CODE OF ETHICS
If a study has involved any contact with human subjects or if it is otherwise appropriate, authors should state in their Methods section that their institution's review board has approved the study proposal, as well as the manner in which informed consent was obtained from subjects (if applicable). Authors should follow the principles outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki (41st World Medical Assembly. Declaration of Helsinki: recommendations guiding physicians in biomedical research involving human subjects. Bull Pan Am Health Organ. 1990;24:606-609).
The Journal subscribes to the criteria for authorship detailed in Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals (Vancouver Guidelines) by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
At the point of submission, American Journal of Epidemiology policy requires that each author reveal any financial interests or connections, direct or indirect, or other situations that might raise the question of bias in the work reported or the conclusions, implications, or opinions stated---including pertinent commercial or other sources of funding for the individual author(s) or for the associated department(s) or organization(s), personal relationships, or direct academic competition. When considering whether you should declare a conflicting interest or connection, please consider the conflict of interest test: Is there any arrangement that would embarrass you or any of your coauthors if it was to emerge after publication and you had not declared it?
As an integral part of the online submission process, corresponding authors are required to confirm whether they or their coauthors have any conflicts of interest to declare, and to provide details of these. If the corresponding author is unable to confirm this information on behalf of all coauthors, the authors in question will then be required to submit a completed Conflict of Interest form to the Editorial Office. It is the corresponding author’s responsibility to ensure that all authors adhere to this policy.
If the manuscript is published, Conflict of Interest information will be communicated in a statement in the published paper.
The American Journal of Epidemiology considers manuscripts for which copyright has not been assigned, that do not essentially duplicate already published material, and are not being simultaneously considered for publication elsewhere. If the submitted manuscript is based on the findings of an article in press or if such an article is cited in support of current findings, a copy of the article should be uploaded along with the submitted manuscript.
Reports of original research are published in the form of Original Contributions or Brief Original Contributions, comprising field and laboratory studies of infectious diseases and noninfectious acute and chronic diseases, as well as studies of statistical or methodological issues. We encourage methodological contributions aimed at improving the design and analysis of epidemiologic studies. Although we recognize that such papers may require a technical level above that of the typical original contribution published in the Journal, we encourage authors of methodological papers to make them as comprehensible as possible by using examples based on epidemiologic studies and by relegating highly technical material to appendices.
Papers dealing with the practical application of epidemiologic or statistical methods (such as the implementation of statistical techniques or the evaluation of interview strategies) are published in a section entitled Practice of Epidemiology. Manuscripts that describe designs, methods, and procedures of specific epidemiologic studies, particularly large and/or multicenter studies, are published in a section entitled Study Design.
Papers designated as Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Reviews identify a gene's allelic variants and describe what is known about their frequency in different populations, identify associated diseases, and summarize the risk and risk factors. The Review and Commentary sections contain reviews and commentaries on various aspects of epidemiologic research. The Systematic Reviews and Meta- and Pooled Analysis section comprises articles on both substantive areas and methodologic aspects. Papers dealing with 1) the history of the methods (study designs) and concepts (e.g., bias, confounding, interaction, causal inference), 2) the way epidemiologists frame hypotheses, 3) the life of epidemiologists, as individuals or as a scientific community, 4) the history of epidemics, 5) the history of epidemiologic organizations/associations.
The editorial board reserves the right to select the section in which the paper will be published, if it is found to be acceptable for publication.
If a questionnaire was used in the study, the authors are encouraged to make it available on the Internet.
The Journal discourages the use of the word “effect(s)” as a proxy for “association(s)” in reports of single observational studies. There are many exceptions to this guideline, such as reports of studies based on Mendelian randomization or instrumental variables, use of the expression “effect modification” as a proxy for “heterogeneity,” and papers focused on methods. The use of the word “effect” is also warranted when discussing the parameters the authors are trying to estimate. (For example: “The effect we are trying to estimate is the difference in 5-year risk/incidence curves.”) In general, authors should make a good case for why they believe that the use of the word “effect” is justified. Please refer to the editorial “Associations Are Not Effects” (Am J Epidemiol. 1991;133(2):101–102).
Confidence intervals should be reported instead of P values for estimated parameters; P values should be reported only for relevant tests.
Letters to the Editor should refer to an article(s) previously published in the Journal. A letter should convey the author's views as concisely as possible and contain a reasonable number of references. Letters to the Editor are not blinded. After it is accepted, it is usually sent to the first author of the original paper for a response; if a response is warranted, both letters will appear in the same issue. (If the response letter cannot be submitted within 3-4 weeks, we will publish the letter and the response can be published in a future issue.) The responding author(s) should reference the critique before citing any other references. The response from the original author ends the discussion. We do not allow publication of original research results in Letters to the Editors; however, original research may be published in Research Letters. Such letters may be unsolicited or result from an editor suggesting that an original research report be condensed into letter format after the article has been peer reviewed and deemed not to warrant publication in its full length. On occasion, the authors of a paper submitted as an original contribution may be encouraged to change it to a research letter before peer review. These letters may undergo further peer review at the editor’s discretion. One table or figure will allowed in a Research Letter. The use of supplemental material published online only will also be allowed.
The Journal strongly discourages the submission of multipart papers. If submitted, multipart papers should be prepared so they can be assigned to different editorial board members and independent outside expert reviewers.
Revisions should be submitted online to ScholarOne Manuscripts using the same "Contact Author" account as the original manuscript. At this site, authors will find a link to the current paper and instructions on how to upload the revisions. Authors are requested to upload an unblinded copy showing the changes, deletions, and/or additions. Along with these copies, responses to the editor's and reviewers' comments are also requested.
It is a condition of publication in the American Journal of Epidemiology that authors grant an exclusive license to Oxford University Press. This ensures that requests from third parties to reproduce articles are handled efficiently and consistently and will also allow the article to be as widely disseminated as possible. In granting an exclusive license, authors may use their own material in other publications provided that the American Journal of Epidemiology is acknowledged as the original place of publication and Oxford University Press is notified in writing and in advance.
Upon receipt of accepted manuscripts at Oxford Journals authors will be invited to complete an online copyright licence to publish form.
Please note that by submitting an article for publication you confirm that you are the corresponding/submitting author and that Oxford University Press ("OUP") may retain your email address for the purpose of communicating with you about the article. You agree to notify OUP immediately if your details change. If your article is accepted for publication OUP will contact you using the email address you have used in the registration process. Please note that OUP does not retain copies of rejected articles.
Because copyright laws and policies are constantly being updated, please refer to a recent issue of the Journal for copyright procedures. In addition, questions regarding copyright and requests to reproduce published data should be directed to Oxford University Press at Journals Permissions or can be answered online at www.oxfordjournals.org/access_purchase/.
The maximum number of words per article, exclusive of tables, figures, references, and abstract, should be as follows: Original Contribution, 3,500; Practice of Epidemiology, 4,000; Study Design, 4,000; Review or Commentary, 4,000; HuGE Review, 5,000; Mini-Review, 2,000 (with no more than 1 figure, 1 short table, and 30 references); Special Article, 4,000; Systematic Reviews and Meta- and Pooled Analyses, 4,000; Epidemiology in History, 4,000; Invited Commentary, 2,000; Brief Original Contributions, 2,000 (with no more than 2 half-page tables and 40 references); Book Reviews, 750–1,000; Letter to the Editor, 500–600; and Research Letter, 1,000 (with no more than 1 figure and 1 short table). An abstract should not exceed 200 words. As noted above, when a manuscript is submitted, authors must provide a word count for both the abstract and the text. Editors can request that authors shorten their papers further. Lengthy, encyclopedic tables should be avoided.
TEXT FORMAT AND STYLE
Refer to a current issue of the Journal for the correct format and style. It should be used in conjunction with the AMA Manual of Style, 10th Edition, published by Oxford University Press. Use American English spelling. Follow Webster's Third New International Dictionary or Merriam Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 11th Edition, for spelling and word division. Follow the Merck Index and Stedman's Medical Dictionary, 26th Edition, for spelling of chemical names and medical terms.
If you have additional questions about Journal style after reading the following instructions, please contact the Journal office, and an Editorial Project Manager will assist you.
For papers in which results of randomized trials are reported, the Journal encourages authors to follow the CONSORT guidelines, available at http://www.consort-statement.org/. Please note that the CONSORT guidelines help to guarantee that the paper has the information necessary for the integration of the trial into meta-analyses and systematic reviews.
The following 3 paragraphs apply only if the paper is accepted. For online submissions, to maintain the blinded status, supply only the title and abbreviations. When the paper has been accepted, the names of the authors and their affiliations must be inserted in the final version.
Cover page. Provide a cover page with the title and authors only (without degrees or affiliations). Author affiliations are provided as the first item in the Acknowledgments section (refer to the information below).
Footnotes page. Type an alphabetical list of all abbreviations used in the manuscript, and their definitions, and a complete address for correspondence, using US Postal Service abbreviations for states. Provide a "running head," a short title of not more than 50 letters and spaces.
Acknowledgments section. This section should be placed after the text and before the references. Provide an ordered list of material that may be included: 1) author affiliations; 2) statement about authors contributing equally to the work; 3) grants and/or financial support; 4) thank-you’s (in this part only, "Dr." should precede the name of each person with a medical and/or doctoral degree (e.g., “The authors thank Dr. John Smith for his contributions to this study.”); do not thank reviewers or study subjects); 5) members of a study group; 6) presentation at a meeting, report number in a series, or student prize paper; 7) disclaimer; and 8) conflict of interest statement.
Author affiliations. These should be listed in a single paragraph titled “Author affiliations:”. Give author names in the same format as in the author line on the cover page, in parentheses at the end of each affiliation. If an author is associated with more than 1 department or institution, that name should be listed after each relevant affiliation. Each affiliation should be as detailed as possible (e.g., section, unit, department; division; School at the University; University Name; City and State or Country). Write out names of states, provinces, and countries (except United States, which is not included); do not use 2-letter US Postal Service abbreviations. Sample: Asia Biometrics Center, Pfizer Australia, Sydney, Australia (Ian C. Marschner); Department of Medicine, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana (Ian C. Marschner, R. John Simes, Anthony Keech); and School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (Emanuela Taioli).
Abstract. Except for letters to the editor, research letters, responses to invited commentaries, editorials, and book reviews, all submissions, including stand-alone commentaries, must include an abstract. The abstract should state concisely the research question that was asked, the methods used, and the results and conclusions of the research. Because the abstract is used by abstracting services such as MEDLINE and must make sense when read alone, it should not include citations of the scientific literature or figures or tables. However, it should include the study year(s), location, and population studied, if applicable.
Note: The abstract must be limited to 200 words. The Journal does not use structured abstracts. Type the abstract as 1 double-spaced paragraph.
Keywords. For all submissions, including commentaries, give a list of no fewer than 3 and no more than 8 keywords in alphabetical order below the abstract. Adjectival key words should be changed to nouns.
Text headings. The main headings used in Original Contributions are METHODS, RESULTS, and DISCUSSION. (These headings may not apply to statistical papers.) Place them flush left on the page in capital letters; do not underline or use bold lettering. Do not use "Introduction" as a heading.
Second-level headings are flush left with only the first letter of the first word uppercased. Do not underline.
Third-level headings are italic and begin the paragraph (with only the first letter of the first word uppercased), followed by a period.
Do not number the sections of the paper.
Abbreviations. To improve clarity and readability, the Journal strictly limits the use of abbreviations. Only those needed for long, involved terms, such as hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), will be allowed. To be considered, abbreviations must be used at least 3 times after the initial callout in the abstract and 5 times in the body of the text. The abbreviations CI, RR, OR, HR, and SMR may be used only in parentheses after being defined the first time used. Abbreviations may be used in tables and figures if they are defined in the table footnotes and figure legends. Avoid excessive use of abbreviations solely to limit the word count.
At its first appearance in the abstract and text, an abbreviated term should be written out in full, with the abbreviation in parentheses immediately following. Abbreviations should also be defined in the abbreviations footnote. Contact the Journal office regarding any questions about the use of an abbreviation.
Greek Letters. Use Greek letters rather than spelled-out words whenever possible, particularly for chemical terms (e.g., β-pinene).
Trade names. For products used in experiments or methods (particularly those referred to by a trade name), give the manufacturer's full name and location (in parentheses). When possible, use generic names of drugs.
Use of "percent" in text.Use the % symbol in the abstract, text, tables, and figures (including legends). Use mg/100 mL rather than mg%.
Footnotes to text. Do not use footnotes to the text. Instead, incorporate such material into the text (e.g., in parentheses).
Numbers. Use Arabic numerals for all specific numbers. Insert commas in numbers with 4 or more digits.
Metric system. The Journal strongly encourages authors to use the metric system for all measurements. Where US measurements must be used, metric equivalents must be given in parentheses.
Decimal fractions. For decimal fractions less than 1.00, use a zero in the whole-number position (e.g., 0.001).
P values. Note style for probability: P < 0.01, with an uppercase italic letter P. Avoid reporting an excessive number of digits beyond the decimal for estimates, especially when the estimate has a wide confidence interval. If P values are given, they should be reported to, at most, 2 digits beyond any leading zeros. They may alternatively be reported as less than some specified value (e.g., P < 0.05 or P < 0.001). Indicate whether P values are 1 sided or 2 sided.
Means, standard deviations, and standard errors. To report means, standard deviations, and standard errors, use the following format: "mean (SD)" and "mean (SE)." Do not use "±."
Confidence intervals. In the text, all confidence intervals are expressed by using a colon and with a comma instead of a dash between values, for example, 95% confidence interval: 1.20, 1.90. In tables, place confidence intervals in a separate column without parentheses, for example, 1.20, 1.90.
Statistical notation. Equations can appear within the text or displayed. Whenever possible, mathematical equations should be written on a single line, as a/ (a + b) and exp(x). With proper use of braces, brackets, parentheses, and exponents, even complicated expressions can be put into this form. However, any mathematical expression that contains a character taller than a line of type should be displayed and numbered as an equation. When referring to an equation in the text, use "equation 6" or "expression 6."
When preparing math, use italic type for variables and single letters, bold type for vectors and matrices, and regular type for short words such as "exp" or "lim and Greek letters."
For multiplication, use a times sign in preference to an asterisk or centered dot. For ±, ≤, and ≥, do not use an underline. The underline may be lost during software conversion, changing the meaning of the data.
Regression analyses. When presenting results of regression analyses, regression coefficients should usually be converted into more generally meaningful terms (e.g., relative odds instead of beta coefficients). Note that, because regression coefficients are unit dependent for continuous variables and category dependent for discrete or ordinal variables, the Journal requires statements specifying the units or categories, that is, as parenthetical statements in the text or in table footnotes or figure legends.
Odds ratio vs. relative risk. When reporting results of a case-based case-control study, where the parameter of interest is an odds ratio, the authors should refer to that parameter as an "odds ratio," not as a "relative risk."
Funding information. Details of all funding sources for the work in question should be provided after the author affiliations in the Acknowledgements section.
- The sentence should begin: "This work was supported by …"
- The full official funding agency name should be given, for example, "the National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health" or simply "National Institutes of Health," not "NCI" (one of the 27 subinstitutions) or "NCI at NIH" (full RIN-approved list of UK funding agencies).
- Grant numbers should be complete, accurate, and provided in parentheses, as follows: (grant ABX CDXXXXXX)
- Multiple grant numbers should be separated by a comma as follows: (grants ABX CDXXXXXX, EFX GHXXXXXX)
- Agencies should be separated by a semicolon (plus "and" before the last funding agency).
- If individuals need to be specified for certain sources of funding, the following text should be added after the relevant agency or grant number: "to [author initials]."
An example is given here: "This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health (Grants P50 CA098252 and CA118790 to R. B. S. R.); and the Alcohol & Education Research Council (Grant HY GR667789)."
Oxford Journals will deposit all NIH-funded articles in PubMed Central. Refer to http://www.oxfordjournals.org/for_authors/repositories.html for details. Authors must ensure that manuscripts are clearly indicated as NIH-funded using the guidelines above.
TABLE FORMAT AND STYLE
Each table must be formatted by using the table feature in Word. Tables should be numbered (Arabic numerals) in the same consecutive sequence in which they are mentioned in the text. They should be concise and self-explanatory. Use a single top rule, a single rule below the headings, and a single bottom rule. Avoid using internal headings, and do not use rules within the table body. Column headings should be clearly delineated, with straddle rules over pertinent columns to indicate subcategories. Whenever possible, data in vertical columns should have the same unit of measurement. Divide overly long tables into 2 or more tables, for example, 1 table for men and 1 for women. Multipart tables are not acceptable.
Table titles should give details on the place of the study, the time of the study, and the study population (if applicable). The designation “Table 1” should be typed flush left, followed by a period and the title. In the title, capitalize all main words, including prepositions of 4 or more letters. For example, “Baseline Characteristics of Infants With Initial and Follow-up Screening, London, United Kingdom, 2001–2003.” (In the text, use an uppercase beginning letter for the words "Table," "Figure," and “Appendix.”) In the table body, leave blank spaces for no entry; avoid using dashes. Order of footnotes: 1) Abbreviations: (no footnote symbol, listed alphabetically, separated by semicolons); 2) other footnotes as necessary, each preceded by a superscript lowercase letter.
REQUIREMENTS FOR FIGURES
Letters, numbers, decimal points, and symbols should be large enough and sharp enough to be readable when figures are reduced and scanned (no smaller than 8 pt in print). All figures will be reduced to fit either in 1 column or within the 2-column width of the Journal page. On maps, add scale (in kilometers or meters) and direction north.
All multipanel figures should have locants to identify each panel. Locants should be capital letters followed by a closing parenthesis, for example, A). Locants should be approximately the same size as the rest of the text in the figure and should appear above and completely to the left of the y-axis title.
When plotting relative measures of effect (e.g., relative risks, relative odds), a logarithmic scale must be used unless there is a compelling reason to use an arithmetic scale. If bars are used to plot the relative measures, they should start at the baseline level of 1.0 rather than at zero.
Figure legends should not be included on the figures themselves but should be typed after the reference list. Each legend should be a separate paragraph and should include details on the place of the study, the time of the study, and the study population (if applicable). Define all figure abbreviations in the legend.
Authors should submit their figures with the manuscript. Color figures are not recommended; there is a per-figure charge to print in color. The charge per color figure is £350 / $600 / €525. Color figures can be published at no charge as Web-only material (refer to the Supplementary Data section of these Instructions). Figures with gray tones are not recommended either. For clarity, use polka dots, hatch marks, or other line art markings instead of grays to differentiate from either black or white. If your figures were created in Word, Excel, or PowerPoint, please submit in that format. For all other programs, please save these figures directly to EPS, PDF, or TIFF files and submit in that format.
Number references consecutively in the order in which they are mentioned in the text. Reference numbers in the text are full-sized Arabic numerals in parentheses within the sentence. For 3 or more consecutive references cited all at once, use, for example, (1-4). Format other references as (4, 5, 12), with spaces between the reference numbers.
When directly quoting material in the text, give the reference number followed by the page number(s) of the quotation, for example, (24, p. 65).
Important: All statements of scientific fact should be referenced. Failure to do so may cause considerable delay in processing the manuscript and may necessitate renumbering of the references.
References to personal, written communications should be inserted in parentheses in the text rather than in the reference list. Give the person's name, institutional affiliation, "personal communication," and the year. Verbal communications are not acceptable as supporting documentation.
The reference list should be limited to published or "in press" references. No "submitted" manuscript should appear in the reference list. A manuscript submitted for publication but not yet accepted may be referenced in parentheses in the text. Give the author's name, institutional affiliation, and "unpublished manuscript." Unpublished data may also be cited in the text (e.g., communications with the paper’s coauthors). However, authors should not refer to "forthcoming" papers or promise future publication of results.
References must be verified by the author(s) against the original documents and must give the exact authors' last names, initials, and article title. Please supply the entire page range and issue number (in parentheses); see examples below. If only 1 page number is given, indicate in parentheses after the title whether the reference is a letter, an editorial, or an abstract. For manuscripts accepted (not submitted) but not yet published, designate the journal followed by a period and then “In press.” For references to papers presented at conferences, give the location (city and state or country), month and days, and year of the conference. For references published online in advance of print publication, provide the journal abbreviation followed by the digital object identifier (DOI) number in parentheses.
For articles originally published in a language other than English, indicate the language in parentheses after the article title provided in English.
References to holy books (e.g., the Bible, the Quran) should be cited parenthetically in running text. Include the chapter and verse(s).
Examples of correct forms of references follow. Type references double-spaced. The titles of journals should be abbreviated according to the List of Journals Indexed in Index Medicus (published by the National Library of Medicine). For more than 3 authors, list the first 3 and add "et al."
EXAMPLES OF REFERENCE STYLE
Standard journal article
Nakajima S, Saijo Y, Kato S, et al. Effects of prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins on mental and motor development in Japanese children at 6 months of age. Environ Health Perspect. 2006;114(5):773–778.
Standard journal article with a published correction/erratum
Korpi A, Mantyjarvi R, Rautiainen J, et al. Detection of mouse and rat urinary aeroallergens with an improved ELISA [published correction appears in J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2004;113(6):1226]. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2004;113(4):677–682.
Journal article with digital object identifier (article not yet in print)
Sturmer T, Gefeller O, Brenner H. A computer program to estimate power and relative efficiency to assess gene-environment interactions in flexibly matched case-control studies. [published online ahead of print August 10, 2005]. Comput Methods Programs Biomed.(doi:10.1016/j.cmpb.2003.08.003).
Article in an online-only journal that accounts for the lack of a page range
Laupland KB, Davies HD, Low DE, et al. Invasive group A streptococcal disease in children and association with varicella-roster virus infection. Ontario Group A Streptococcal Study Group. Pediatrics. 2000;105(5):E60.
Article in a supplemental issue
Giovannucci E. Alcohol, one-carbon metabolism, and colorectal cancer: recent insights from molecular studies. J Nutr. 2004;134(suppl):2475S–2481S.
Committee or corporate author
Self-reported illness and health status among Gulf War veterans. A population-based study. The Iowa Persian Gulf Study Group. JAMA. 1997;277(3):238–245.
Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Tuberculosis–United States, 1980.MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1981;30(5):55–56.
Article with a non–English-language title
Richartz E, Schott KJ, Wormstall H. Psychopharmakotherapie bei Demenzerkrankungen. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2004;129(25):1434–1440.
Miyazaki K, Murakami A, Imamura S, et al. A case of fundus albipunctatus with a retinol dehydrogenase 5 gene mutation in a child [in Japanese]. Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi. 2001;105(8):530–534.
Joffe M, Santanna J, Feldman H. Partially marginal structural models for causal inference [abstract]. Am J Epidemiol. 2001;153(suppl):S261.
Deddens JA, Petersen MR. Re: “Estimating the relative risk in cohort studies and clinical trials of common outcomes” [letter]. Am J Epidemiol. 2004;159(2):213–214.
Richardson HJ. Disabilities and Problems of Hong Kong Veterans, 1664–1965. (Report to Canadian Pensions Commission). Ottawa, Canada: Canadian Pensions Commission; 1965. Cited by: Tennant CC, Goulston KJ, Dent OF. The psychological effects of being a prisoner of war—40 years after release. Am J Psychiatry. 1986;143(5):618–621.
Kato S, Sherman PM. What is new related to Helicobacter pylori infection in children and teenagers? Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2005;159(5):415-421. Quoted by: Prazar G. How many pediatricians does it take to change a practice? or how to incorporate change into practice [editorial]. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2005;159(5):500-502.
Rothman KJ, Greenland S, eds. Modern Epidemiology. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott-Raven, Publishers; 1998.
Chapter in a Book
Robins JM. Marginal structural models versus structural nested models as tools for causal inference. In: Halloran ME, Berry D, eds. Statistical Models in Epidemiology, the Environment, and Clinical Trials. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag; 1999:95–134.
Chapter in a book (no chapter titles)
Robins JM. Chapter 3. In: Halloran ME, Berry D, eds. Statistical Models in Epidemiology, the Environment, and Clinical Trials. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag; 1999:95–134.
Knoll EG. Mental Evolution and the Science of Language: Darwin, Muller, and Romanes on the Development of the Human Mind [dissertation]. Birmingham, AL: University of Alabama; 1987.
National Center for Health Statistics. Plan and Operation of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–94. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics; 1994. (Vital and health statistics, series 1: programs and collection procedures, no. 32) (DHHS publication no. (PHS) 94-1308) (GPO no. 017-022-01260-0).
Linna SL, Taanila A, Heikura U, et al. Shift of etiological pattern of intellectual disability in the two northern Finland birth cohorts 1966 and 1986 [abstract]. Presented at the Fourth Congress of the European Association of Intellectual Disability Medicine, Lahti, Finland, August 25–27, 2005.
Web page/Web site
Bureau of the Census, US Department of Commerce. Glossary of basic geographic and related terms—Census 2000. http://www.census.gov/geo/www/tiger/glossary.html#glossary. Published April 8, 2001. Updated January 5, 2004. Accessed February 24, 2005.
US Environmental Protection Agency. Final rule. "National primary drinking water regulations; arsenic and clarifications to compliance and new source contaminants monitoring." Part VIII. Federal Register 66, no. 14 (January 22, 2001):6876–7066. http://www.epa.gov/safewater/ars/arsenid_finalrule.htm.
Health Care Financing Administration. 1996 statistics at a glance. Baltimore, MD: Health Care Financing Administration. http://www.hcfa.gov/stats/stathili.htm. Published May 20, 1996. Accessed March 1, 1998.
Database or database entry
Bureau of the Census, US Department of Commerce. Census 2000 summary file 3. Washington, DC: Bureau of the Census; 2007. http://www.census.gov/population/www/cen2000/. Accessed January 8, 2007.
National Center for Biotechnology Information, US National Library of Medicine. Reference SNP cluster report: rs2077647. (NCBI Single Nucleotide Polymorphism database). Washington, DC: National Library of Medicine; 2007. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/SNP/snp_ref.cgi?rs=2077647. Accessed May 12, 2009.
Stata Corporation. Stata statistical software, release 9. College Station, TX: Stata Corporation; 2005.
The man who helped indict smoking [editorial]. New York Times. January 18, 1997:A22.
ABC News. What happened over there? 20/20, August 14, 1992. Denver, CO: Journal Graphics, Inc; 1992. (Transcript 1235).
Goode E. Study finds jump in children taking psychiatric drugs. New York Times. January 14, 2003:A21, A25.
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