Skip Navigation

Manuscript submission

Manuscript submission instructions

All manuscripts should be submitted online at

If you experience any problems during the online submission process please consult the Author's User Guide ( which provides more detailed submission instructions and 'movie tutorials' explaining how to submit your paper. Alternatively, please contact the Journal's Editorial Office at - they will be pleased to assist you.

New authors should go to and create an account before submitting a manuscript for consideration. Click on the 'Create Account' button on the log-in screen and follow the on-screen instructions.


Follow the instructions contained in the Instructions to authors document regarding the format of your manuscript and references.

Prepare your manuscript, including tables, using a word processing program and save it as three separate .doc or .rtf files. One file (the main document) should contain the title, abstract, and text of the article with no identifying author information. The second file (the title page) should contain the title of the article, the names and affiliations of all authors, and the address of the corresponding author. The third file should contain any figures or tables.

When naming your files, please use simple file names and avoid special characters and spaces. If you are a Macintosh user, you must also ensure that the three-letter extension appears at the end of the file name you choose (e.g. .doc, .rtf, .jpg, .gif, .tif, .ppt, .xls, .pdf, .eps, .mov).

The online submission software (ScholarOne Manuscripts) will automatically create a single document in pdf and .html formats containing your main text and reduced-resolution versions of any figures and tables you have submitted. This document will be used when your manuscript undergoes peer review. Your submitted files will appear in this PDF sequentially, as specified by you on the submission page, and you will have an opportunity to enter figure captions/legends and to check the PDF proof prior to final submission.

Before you visit the online submission website, make sure that you have the three files (main document, title page, tables) available on your computer, as well as email addresses for yourself and any co-authors. You will need these during the submission.


Now that your files are ready, visit the online submission website.

First, you will need to log into the system. Note: Before you begin, you should be sure you are using an up-to-date version of Netscape or Internet Explorer. If you have an earlier version, you can download a free upgrade using the icons found at the bottom of the 'Instructions and Forms' section of the online submission website.

* If you know your log-in details, use your User ID and Password to log on.
* If you do not know your log-in details, check to see if you are already registered by clicking on the 'Forgot your Password' button and following the on-screen instructions.
* If you are a new user, you can register by clicking on the 'Create Account' button on the log-in screen and following the on-screen instructions.
* If you have trouble finding manuscripts or have other problems with your account do not create another account. Instead, please contact the Journal's Editorial Office.


Go to the 'Author Centre', click on the button to 'Submit a Manuscript', and then follow the on-screen instructions. There are up to 7 steps for you to follow to submit your manuscript. You move from one step to the next by clicking on the 'Save and Continue' button on each screen or back to the previous screen by clicking on the 'Previous' button. Please note that if you click on the 'Back' or 'Forward' button on your browser, the information you have entered will not be saved.

At any stage you can stop the submission process by clicking on the 'Main Menu' button. Everything you have typed into the system will be saved, and the partially completed submission will appear under 'unsubmitted manuscripts' in your 'Author Centre'. To return to the submission process you will need to click on the button 'Continue Submission' against the relevant manuscript title.

When submitting your manuscript, please enter the details of your manuscript into the relevant fields, following the detailed instructions given at the top of each page. You can copy and paste the title and abstract into the required fields from your article files.

When you come to upload your manuscript files via the 'File Upload' screen:

* Enter individual files using the 'Browse' buttons below and select the appropriate 'File content' type.
* Select the document's designation from the pull-down menu. The designation choices may vary, but will always include 'Main Document' (your manuscript text). If you do not wish a document to be included as part of the consolidated PDF used for peer review, please designate it as a 'supplementary file'.
* Upload your files by clicking on the 'Upload files' button. This converts your files to a PDF and may take several minutes.
* When the upload of the file is completed, you will see a confirmation window and be prompted to provide figure legends and 'file tags' that will link figures to the right place in the text of the HTML proof of your main document.
* Once you have uploaded all files, indicate the order in which they should appear in your paper. This will determine the order in which they appear in the consolidated PDF used for peer review.
* After the successful upload of your text and images, you will need to view and proof your manuscript. Please do this by clicking on the blue HTML button or a PDF button.
* If the files have not been uploaded to your satisfaction, go back to the file upload screen where you can remove the files you do not want, and repeat the upload process.

When you are satisfied with the uploaded manuscript proof click on 'Next' which will take you to the 'Review & Submit' screen. The system will check that you have completed all the obligatory fields and that you have viewed your manuscript proof. It will also present you with a summary of all the information you have provided and give you a final chance to edit it. When you have finished reviewing this information press 'Submit'.

After the manuscript has been submitted you will see a confirmation screen and receive an e-mail confirmation stating that your manuscript has been successfully submitted. This will also give the assigned manuscript number, which is used in all correspondence. If you do not receive this, your manuscript will not have been successfully submitted to the journal and the paper cannot progress to peer review. If this is the case your manuscript will still be sitting in the 'Unsubmitted Manuscripts' section of your 'Author Centre' awaiting your attention.

If you return to your 'Author Centre' you will notice that your newly submitted manuscript can be found in the 'Submitted Manuscripts' area. Among the information listed there, the 'Processing Status' section provides information on the status of your manuscript as it moves through the review process.


Please supply your revised paper though the online submission website using your User ID and Password to log on--remembering that these are both case-sensitive.

Log on to the online submission website and, in the 'Author Centre', click on Manuscripts with Decisions under 'My Manuscripts'. You will then see a list of all manuscripts you have submitted where the editors have been able to make a decision.

Find the manuscript you wish to revise and click on the link 'create a revision' in the 'Actions' column.

This will initiate a revised-submission process that prompts you to respond to the points made by the Editors and/or reviewers.

Continue to follow the 7-step submission process, providing information when prompted.

Please note: All the files from your previous submission will have been retained by the system. So, when your reach the 'File Upload' screen (Step #6), you will need to delete any files that are no longer needed or need to be replaced with revised versions.