Published on behalf of
Thomas F. Lüscher
Bernard J. Gersh
Gender differences in heart failure are based on distinct characteristics in diagnosis, management, and prognosis in men and women. Molecular details of cardiac pathophysiology may influence the clinical phenotype. Genes differentially expressed (top) and phenotypic characteristics (bottom) are depicted relative to the other gender, where the left column represents genes and characteristics more prevalent in women, and the right column those more prevalent in men.
Difficulties in detection of acute coronary syndromes
Disentangling the conundrum of aetiology, pathogenesis, and clinical manifestation of cardiac disease in human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). HAART, highly active antiretroviral therapy; IRIS, immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome; RHF, right heart failure.
Importance of iron for functioning and survival across all levels of complexity of living structures.
Major pools of utilized and stored iron in the body.
The concept of absolute and functional iron deficiency.
Tissues utilizing and/or storing iron and related biomarkers which are secreted by these tissues and can be detected in peripheral blood.
Haemodynamic disturbances in heart failure and mechanisms resulting in different patterns of elevated liver enzymes. Congestive hepatic injury (left panel) and ischaemic hepatic injury (right panel).
Long-term impact of different ventricular activation patterns on regional load and hypertrophy. A, delayed LV activation in LBBB unloads the septum and increases the regional load in the delayed activated postero-lateral wall resulting in compensatory hypertrophy.8 B, Optimized CRT may normalize these pathologic relationships by simultaneous and more rapid ventricular activation. C, Hypothetical (and probably exaggerated) result of suboptimal CRT with early LV activation (reverse dyssynchrony). The early activated posterolateral wall is exposed to a lower regional load and the late activated opposing wall (i.e. the septum) responds with regional hypertrophy.
Organization of the autonomic nervous system demonstrating the salient interactions involving brain, heart, and kidney.
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