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Information for Authors

Last updated: 2 January 2015




The aim of JXB is to publish the highest quality manuscripts that address questions of broad interest in plant biology. We welcome manuscripts that identify fundamental mechanisms including those underpinning the improvement of plants for the sustainable production of food, fuel and renewable materials. Our emphasis is on molecular physiology, molecular genetics and environmental physiology, and we encourage integrative approaches employing cutting-edge technologies, systems biology, and synthetic biology.

Areas of interest include but are not limited to:
Plant Environment Interactions: plant responses to environmental variables including global change, biotic and abiotic stress, mineral nutrition;
Photosynthesis and Metabolism: light capture, carbon uptake and assimilation, resource allocation, broader metabolism and nutrition;
Crop Molecular Genetics: including trait and gene characterization;
Plant Growth and Differentiation: integration of internal and external cues determining development and architecture, reproductive biology

In addition to the aims and scope the following statements should aid in judging if a paper is suitable for publication in JXB.

• As a general rule papers that describe phenomena without advancing our understanding of a process or mechanism will not be accepted.

• The publication of data sets linking genomics with phenomics, proteomics and metabolomics is encouraged when the data and interpretation reveal new understanding of functional significance.

• The publication of research on plant traits of economic importance is encouraged when it provides new insights with broad application.

• QTL studies and large scale meta analysis of data (including population genetics and genetic diversity studies) will only be considered important if they advance mechanistic or functional understanding of biological processes in plants or provide a framework for future mechanistic work.

• Papers presenting new methodologies should only be considered if the application is supported with experimental data that provide new biological insight and the methods are of wide relevance to plant scientists and are likely to be taken up by JXB readers. Clear demonstration of the applicability of the method is essential for publication.

Original articles should provide new insights into underlying biological processes or functions that will be of interest to the plant science community. Manuscripts that are essentially descriptive or that confirm a well-known process in a species in which the process has not been identified previously will not be considered for peer review.

Darwin reviews are a prestigious collection of invited articles that present a contemporary perspective on important topics of broad interest to the plant science community. Although generally these papers are written by invitation, proposals are welcome. The reviews should be scholarly articles; not only should they summarize relevant information, but they should add value to current knowledge through constructive academic criticism, informed insight or well-considered foresight. Authors are encouraged to use illustrations, particularly if such illustrations could become useful teaching aids or research models. Reviews should generally not include previously unpublished data. All review articles pass through the same refereeing process as regular articles and the response time to first decision can be expected to match the Journal’s target of 28 days.

Opinion papers that express a particular point of view on a controversial topic relevant to any aspect of plant science are also considered. Outlines of Reviews and Opinion Papers should be submitted to the Editor-in-Chief for consideration before preparation of a full manuscript.

In addition to regular issues the Journal also publishes Special Issues, which are collections of reviews on a particular subject and are often associated with scientific meetings.

The submission of a manuscript to the Journal of Experimental Botany implies that it is not under consideration by any other journal, and that all authors have agreed to submission. The work must be original with no part having been published elsewhere, with the exception of a short abstract.

When referring to previously published work the source must be acknowledged, and authors are required to either paraphrase the detail of the work in their own words, or the text should be enclosed in quotations marks. There are no submission fees or page charges to publish in the Journal of Experimental Botany.


All manuscripts should be submitted via our online manuscript submission and review system, Bench>Press. If you are unable to submit in this way please contact the editorial office. To submit online please go to If you are a first time user of the online system please click on ‘Create an account’ and register following the website’s instructions. If you are already registered, sign in with your username and password and then click on ‘Author Area’ to start your submission. If you have forgotten your password, you can obtain a new one by clicking on ‘lost password’. Here you will be prompted to enter your e-mail address. The next page will ask you your security question. After entering your security question, a new password will be e-mailed to you (you can always change a password on your Personal Information page).

Before submitting your manuscript please read and follow the Journal’s guidelines for presentation. After you have logged in, please enter the ‘Author Area’ and select ‘Submit a new manuscript’. Fill in all the required fields as follows:

1. Manuscript Basics: enter the number of authors, article type, title, running title, key words, abstract, covering letter, submission agreement, and select the most appropriate area for the subject of the manuscript. The covering letter must include a brief description of the novel and significant findings reported in the manuscript.

You are required to suggest three potential reviewers. Reviewers can also be excluded, and if you exclude reviewers please state your reasons in the covering letter. In both cases please provide as much information as possible (e-mail and full institution address).

2. Author(s) List: enter the name, institution, and a unique and valid e-mail address for each author in the order they appear on the manuscript.

3. Manuscript Specifics: enter the number of pages and figures, number of colour and black and white figures in print and online, number of tables, and the total word count.

4. Manuscript File(s): a single Word or RTF file with tables and figures is the preferred format. If figures are not included in the Word or RTF file, they should be submitted as .JPEG, .TIFF, PowerPoint, and should be clearly labelled. Supplementary data, papers in press, cover images, and other files which are not part of the manuscript should be uploaded as supplementary files.

After all the files are uploaded, the manuscript and figures will be converted to a single .PDF, which will be used during the review process. Files uploaded as supplementary data are not added to the PDF.

If reference is made to a paper ‘in press’, a proof of this should also be submitted. If any material from other publications is included, it should be clearly referenced and copyright permission sought before submission. Please see section ‘Permission to reproduce figures’.


Manuscripts must be written in English, in the third person and should be clear and grammatically correct. Authors whose native language is not English should consider having their manuscript read by an English speaking colleague or have it professionally edited. This is not a mandatory step, but may help to ensure that the academic content of your paper is fully understood by journal editors and reviewers. Language editing does not guarantee that your manuscript will be accepted for publication. If you would like information about one such service please click here. There are other specialist language editing companies that offer similar services and you can also use any of these. Authors are liable for all costs associated with such services.

Manuscripts should be typewritten on an A4 page, 1.5 line-spaced throughout and with a 4 cm margin on the left. Number all pages of the manuscript consecutively on the right hand side at the bottom of the page. Number the lines of the text in the left-hand margin, but omit line numbering from the beginning of the References section onwards.

Page and line numbering help reviewers and editors to refer easily to specific sections of the manuscript. Please note that manuscripts without page and line numbering will be returned to authors for correction before being considered further.

Data should not be presented twice, for example, both tabular and graphical form. Large bodies of primary data should be presented as ‘Supplementary Data’, which will be published online at the time of publication.

Manuscript length should not be longer than 10,000 words including references, figure legends and tables. Manuscripts exceeding this limit must be justified and agreed prior to submission.

Original articles should be divided into sections presented in the following order:

Title page



Materials and Methods


Discussion (this section may be combined with Results)

Supplementary Data (if applicable)




Figure legends



The Title page should contain the title, the name(s) of the author(s), the name(s) and address(es) of the institution(s) where the work was carried out, including a valid e-mail address for each author listed in the manuscript. For corresponding author please include telephone and fax. The date of submission, the number of tables and figures, and the total word count should also be included. When listing figures, it is important to declare exactly which figures should be in colour in print and which should be in colour online-only. If your manuscript has Supplementary Data specify the number of figures, tables or videos.


The Title of the manuscript should be specific, concise and as informative as possible.
Words in the Title and in the Abstract are used for electronic search engines, such as PubMed, to find articles.
Please ensure that your title contains the main key words that most accurately describe the contents of the manuscript.

Authors should also suggest a short running title. Please do not add the running title as a header.


Please provide a short statement that highlights the novelty of the manuscript in less than 30 words, and include it on the title page above the abstract. This statement appears under the title on the online table of contents page. When writing this statement please bear in mind that it should be short and simple. It should contain the central finding of your work. Please think carefully about the wording and treat it as an opportunity to further entice readers to access your research.


The Abstract should summarize concisely in no more than 250 words, the rationale, main findings, main conclusions, and wider implications of the study. It should contain no discursive matter or references.

Authors should suggest no fewer than six key words for their article in alphabetical order.


In the interest of clarity limit the use of abbreviations, and generally eliminate abbreviations that are not used at least three times in the text. A list of the most common abbreviations that may be used without definition can be found here. For any other term or for the names of less common compounds define it on first mention, follow by the abbreviation in parenthesis, and use the abbreviation thereafter. Abbreviations and their explanation can be composed in a list, in alphabetical order. Standard chemical symbols may be used in the text where desirable in the interest of conciseness.
Numbers up to ten should be spelled out in the text except when referring to measurements. Numbers higher than ten are to be represented as numerals except at the beginning of a sentence. Fractions are to be expressed as decimals.
Dates should be cited: 7 June 2009, and the 24 hour clock should be used.


The complete scientific name (genus, species, and authority, and cultivar where appropriate) must be cited for every organism at the first mention. The generic name should be abbreviated to the initial thereafter, except where intervening references to other genera with the same initial could cause confusion. If vernacular names are employed, they must be accompanied by the correct scientific name on first use. Back to Contents


The metric system is adopted as standard. The system of units known as ‘SI’ should be used. If non-standard abbreviations must be used they should be defined in the text. Units of measurement should be spelled out except when preceded by a numeral, when they should be abbreviated in the standard form: g, mg, cm3, etc. and not followed by full stops. Use negative exponents to indicate units in the denominator (i.e. mmol m-2 s-1). Back to Contents


Follow Chemical Abstracts and its indexes for chemical names. The IUPAC and IUBMB recommendations on chemical, biochemical, and molecular biology nomenclature should be followed for amino acids, peptides, enzymes, nucleic acids, polynucleotides, carbohydrates, and lipids (see and /iubmb).

Nomenclature for genes and proteins must follow international standards. It is important to differentiate between genes and proteins. Italics is a standard for genes, so all gene symbols and loci should be in italics and capitalization as it applies for each organism's standard nomenclature format, in text, tables, and figures. Proteins should appear in Roman type. Nomenclature conventions differ amongst species, please follow them accordingly.







Papers that present studies of transgenic plants should provide preliminary data on 4-5 independent lines and more in depth data should be produced from a minimum of two independent lines displaying a related and stable phenotype.


Deposition of sequence data (proteins or nucleotides), array data, molecular interaction data, and any other data where there is a publicly held database is required before publication of the manuscript; and the database accession number must be given in the manuscript (Materials and methods). Appropriate databases for protein and nucleic acid sequences are: EMBL; GenBank, or the Protein Data Bank.

Microarray Gene Expression Data should be MIAME compliant; and data should be deposited in a public repository such as ArrayExpress and GEO. Back to Contents


We encourage authors of accepted manuscripts whose manuscript contains gene functional data on Arabidopsis to submit their data at The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR) database: This information can be on:
-biological processes (i.e. leaf morphogenesis, oxidative phosphorylation),
-molecular function (i.e. adenylate cyclase activity, kinase activity),
-subcellular localisation (i.e. nucleus, mitochondrion),
-expression pattern (i.e. petal differentiation, expansion stage, embryo), and
-protein-protein interaction.
When submitting your data to TAIR, you will need your article DOI (Digital Object Identifier)(doi: 10.1093/jxb/erqxxx) which can be found on the proofs of your article. The data you submit will be attributed to you on the TAIR website.


If equations require more than one level of subscript or superscript, please use either ‘Microsoft Equation Editor’ or ‘Math Type’. If anything else is used, the equation has to be re-typed which makes it vulnerable to errors. Back to Contents


Tables should be on a separate page, and should be numbered in Arabic numerals with a concise and descriptive legend at the head. They should be cited in the text in a sequential order. Please create tables in Word using the ‘table’ feature and include them in the text file. Back to Contents


Each figure should be provided on a separate page, clearly labelled using Arabic numbers. Citation in the text should take the form Fig. 1A etc, and should be referred to in the text in sequential order. Label figures that have more than one panel in capital letters A, B, etc. Lines and symbols should be drawn boldly enough to stand reduction. For graphs a suitable thickness for the axis would be 0.3 mm and for the other lines 0.4 or 1.0 mm depending on the complexity of the graph. The preferred symbols are closed circles, open circles, closed squares, open squares, closed triangles, and open triangles and should be no smaller than 2 mm (height/diameter) for reduction to one-half. The symbols x and + should be avoided.

The typeface used for lettering should be of a type similar in style to the text of the journal (e.g. Times New Roman or Arial). The height of the lettering should be uniform throughout and should have a capital height of 4.0 mm on the originals for reduction to one-half. A scale should be included for all micrographs; otherwise the scale of the original should be stated in the legends so that the final scale can be calculated.

The minimum resolution for the figures is 300 dpi (dots per inch) for tone or colour, 1200 dpi for line art at approximately the correct size for publication, and the preferred format is word for graphs and .eps or .ppt for other figures. Colour figures should be RGB for online-only publication and CMYK (Cyan-Magenta-Yellow-Black) for print publication.

Figure legends should also be listed on a separate page and included in the text file (Word/RTF). Figure legends should provide enough detail to understand the figure without referring to the text. A description of the symbols used in the figures should be written out in full. (Please do not include the character symbol in the legend). For micrographs, the scale of the original should be included in the legend unless already indicated in the picture. Please note that figure legends may be used by search engines for figure searches. To ensure that reviewers, editors, and readers can understand your figures please follow the recommendations to make them colour-blind friendly (see, for example,

Figure manipulation: Please note that no specific feature within an image may be enhanced, obscured, moved, removed, or introduced. The grouping of images from different parts of the same gel, or from different gels, fields, or exposures must be made explicit by the arrangement of the figure (i.e. using dividing lines) and in the figure legend. Adjustments of brightness, contrast, or colour balance are only acceptable if they are applied to the whole image and if they do not obscure, eliminate, or misrepresent any information present in the original, including backgrounds. Without any background information, it is not possible to see exactly how much of the original gel is actually shown. Non-linear adjustments (e.g. changes to gamma settings) must be disclosed in the figure legend.


There are no charges for colour online; Figures and Tables may be presented in colour online and in black and white in print. The use of online-only colour will be limited to those figures which reproduce adequately in both greyscale and colour. Authors who wish to have their figures in colour both online and in print will be charged (see below). Please consider these options carefully at the time of submission. The online system will ask you to select these options for each colour figure. If a figure is going to be published in colour online but not in print it is essential that no reference to colour is made in the legend or within the text of the manuscript that refers to the figure. The figure files for online-only colour should be supplied in RGB. Authors will receive the proofs according to the online version of the manuscript. The charge for colour publication in print for research papers is currently £100/$190/€150 (+VAT) per figure or table. Colour payment agreement is required before publication of your manuscript. Colour in print is free if the corresponding author of the paper is a member of the Society for Experimental Biology (, colour in print is free.
Review papers are exempt from colour charges, but colour should be essential for the scientific understanding.

Cover illustrations: we welcome the submission of interesting images for a potential issue cover. Illustrations may be taken from the article, or be closely related to it, and they should be original. The potential cover illustration figure(s) must be supplied in electronic format as .TIFF, and resolution must be above 300 dpi at publication size. The image size is 91×285 mm. Please provide a detailed legend and credit information. Authors may submit a potential cover illustration at the time of submission or at a later stage during the reviewing process via e-mail ( In this latter case, please provide your manuscript number and title and your address.


Supplementary material may be submitted for online-only publication if it adds value for potential readers. However, it must not contain material critical to the understanding of the manuscript. The hard copy of the manuscript should stand alone, but it should be indicated at an appropriate point in the text that supplementary material is available online. In addition, the availability of supplementary material should also be indicated in the manuscript by a section headed ‘Supplementary material’ with a brief description of these data to appear before the Acknowledgements and References. If possible the best format to present these data is a single PDF file. Please include the manuscript title and list of authors without affiliations at the top of the first page, and whenever possible include the figure legends.Please do not add line numbers to these data, and do not include the supplementary data in the main text file.

Supplementary material should be named and cited within the manuscript as Figure S1, Table S1, Video S1, etc. Supplementary material is available to reviewers and editors during the review process. If images are supplied as .GIFs or .JPEGs, the minimum acceptable resolution for viewing on screen is 120 dpi.

Videos: The preferred formats for video clips are .MOV, .MPG, .AVI, and animated .GIF files. Authors are advised to use a readily available program to create movies so that they can be viewed easily with e.g. Windows Media Player or QuickTime.

Authors should check the supplementary data carefully as this information is not professionally copy edited or proofread. Back to contents


The accuracy of the references and citation information is the responsibility of the authors. Please be aware that, if citation information is incomplete or inaccurate, links on the online journal will not work. Line numbering should be omitted from the References section onwards.

Citations in the text should have the authors immediately followed by the date to facilitate the electronic linkages which are available on-line, for example: (Shen and Ma, 2001) or Shen and Ma (2001). If several papers by the same author in the same year are cited, they should be lettered in sequence (2000a, b), etc. When papers are by more than two authors they should be cited in the text: (Shen et al., 2001).

In the list, references must be placed in alphabetical order without serial numbering. The list of literature must be typed at 1.5 line spaces and no space between citations. References should be thoroughly checked before submission. If the list is not in the correct form it will be returned to the author for amendment and publication of the paper may be delayed. For a paper with 10 authors, list them all; for more than 10 authors, list the first three followed by et al. Journal titles should not be abbreviated but be given in full.

The following standard form of citation should be used, including the title of each paper or book:

Lakatos M. 2011. Lichens and bryophytes: habitats and species. In: Lüttge U, Beck E, Bartels D, eds. Plant desiccation tolerance. Heidelberg: Springer, 65–87.

Botha FC, Whittaker A, Vorster DJ, Black KG. 1996. Sucrose accumulation rate, carbon partitioning and expression of key enzyme activities in sugarcane stem tissue. In: Wilson JR, Hogarth DM, Campbell JA, Garside AL, eds. Sugarcane: research towards efficient and sustainable production. Brisbane: CSIRO Division of Tropical Crops and Pastures, 98–101.

Cao ZY, Geng BB, Xu S, Xuan W, Nie L, Shen WB, Liang YC, Guan RZ. 2011. BnHO1, a haem oxygenase-1 gene from Brassica napus, is required for salinity and osmotic stress-induced lateral root formation. Journal of Experimental Botany 62, 4675–4689.

Osorio S, Bombarely A, Giavalisco P, Usadel B, Stephens C, Aragüez I, Medina-Escobar N, Botella MA, Fernier AR, Valpuesta V. 2011. Demethylation of oligogalacturonides by FaPE1 in the fruits of the wild strawberry Fragaria vesca triggers metabolic and transcriptional changes associated with defence and development of the fruit. Journal of Experimental Botany 62, 2855–2873.

Shen YY, Wang XF, Wu FQ, et al. 2006. The Mg-chelatase H subunit is an abscisic acid receptor. Nature 443, 823–826.

Uys L. 2009. Coupling kinetic models and advection–diffusion equations to model vascular transport in plants, applied to sucrose accumulation in sugarcane. PhD thesis, Stellenbosch University.

Only papers published or in press should be cited in the literature list. Unpublished results, including submitted manuscripts and those in preparation, should be cited as unpublished in the text.

Citation of articles from e-journals and journal articles published ahead of print should have the author names, year, manuscript title, full journal title followed by the assigned digital object identifier (DOI) or the appropriate URL.

Tan YD, Xu H. 2014. A general method for accurate estimation of false discovery rates in identification of differentially expressed genes. Bioinformatics doi: 10.1093/bioinformatics/btu124
Effendi Y, Ferro N, Labusch C, Geisler M, and Scherer GFE. 2014. Complementation of the embryo-lethal T-DNA insertion mutant of AUXIN-BINDING-PROTEIN 1 (ABP1) with abp1 point mutated versions reveals crosstalk of ABP1 and phytochromes. Journal of Experimental Botany doi: 10.1093/jxb/eru433

Citation of other URL addresses (unless in reference to an e-journal) may be made in the text but should not be included in the reference list.


Newly submitted manuscripts are sent to the relevant subject Associate Editor to be assessed for suitability. If the manuscript is judged to be appropriate in terms of remit and quality, the Associate Editor assigns it to a Handling Editor, who oversees the review process. Manuscripts are reviewed by two independent experts in the relevant area. The reviewers make a scientific assessment and a recommendation to the Editors. Reviewers remain unknown to authors. The Handling Editor considers the manuscript and the reviewers’ comments before making a final decision either to accept, accept with revision or to reject a manuscript. Rejected manuscripts with an invitation to re-submit are considered as new submissions and may undergo the full reviewing process at the Editors' discretion. Include a point by point response to reviewers with your re-submitted manuscript.


Revised manuscripts should be received within four weeks of the date from when the invitation was sent; revised manuscripts received after this time will be considered as new submissions. Revised manuscripts should be accompanied by a detailed response, explaining how all the concerns of the editor and referees have been addressed. Please give the exact page number(s), paragraphs(s), and line number(s) where each revision has been made, and include this information in ‘Response to reviews’ during submission. In addition, please upload the revised manuscript file (Word) with tracked changes as a supplementary file to facilitate evaluation.

Format for revised manuscripts: original source files should be submitted at this stage to avoid delays if the manuscript is accepted. The main text must be provided in Word or RTF. References, Tables and Figure Legends should be included in this Word/RTF file. Tables must be created in Word using the ‘table’ function: please do not use the picture format. Send only one file per complete figure (Please do NOT send individual files for parts of a figure (Fig. 1A, Fig. 1B)). The preferred figure format for publication is .TIFF. The minimum resolution for the figures is 300 dpi for tone or colour, 1200 dpi for line art at approximately the correct size for publication. Colour figures should be CMYK (Cyan-Magenta-Yellow-Black).


Please note that if your manuscript (or supplementary material) includes any data in tables or figure(s) already published, you will need permission from the original publisher to reproduce them in both print and online before your manuscript can be published. This includes figures adapted (modified or re-drawn) in any way from other publications. It is the responsibility of the authors to seek permission to reproduce figures or data from other publications. Please note that obtaining copyright permission could take some time, therefore, we advise you seek permission as early as possible. A copy of the permission document should be sent to the editorial office at To seek copyright permission please contact the copyright permission department of the relevant journal or publisher.


Open Access articles are freely available online to all from the date of online publication. All primary papers whose corresponding author’s institution has a full subscription to the JXB will be published Open Access without paying any fee. All material associated with that article will also be accessible to all. Authors from non-subscribing institutions can choose to make their article Open Access, and this will incur a charge of £1750/$2800/€2275. If authors choose not to pay the fee the article will remain under subscription access for one year, and during that time will only be accessible to those with a personal or institutional subscription or on a pay-per-view basis. After that time, all online articles are freely accessible to all. Authors will be offered the Open Access option when their paper is accepted; more information at


Proofs of the paper are sent electronically to the corresponding author as a link to a web site. The author should download the pdf, mark up typographical corrections on the electronic PDF proof and upload their corrections to the web site within three days of receipt. This is essential if all the material in a given issue is not to be delayed by the late receipt of one corrected proof.


On publication of an article, corresponding authors can order 25 free offprints and/or a free copy of the issue in which their paper is published using the offprint order form and will also receive a unique URL that gives access to both PDF and HTML versions of the paper. The free URL link may be mounted on the authors’ home page or institutional web site. This URL links visitors to the JXB site and the complete version of the paper online with all functionality; it is accessible regardless of subscription status. Additional offprints may be purchased if required. A link to the offprint order form is sent in an email once the paper is sent to production. Late offprint orders submitted after the Journal has gone to press are subject to a 100% surcharge (to cover the additional printing cost). When returning the offprint form, the doi or manuscript number, author name and full delivery address must be stated clearly. Please note that orders from the UK will be subject to the current VAT charge. For orders from elsewhere in the EU you or your institution should account for VAT by way of a reverse charge. Please provide us with your or your institution’s VAT number.


It is a condition of publication in the Journal that authors grant an exclusive licence to the Society for Experimental Biology. This ensures that requests from third parties to reproduce articles are handled efficiently and consistently and will also allow the article to be as widely disseminated as possible. In assigning the licence, authors may use their own material in other publications provided that the Journal is acknowledged as the original place of publication, and Oxford University Press, on behalf of the SEB, is notified in writing and in advance.

Creative Commons information

JXB Open Access papers licence is compatible with the Creative Commons Attribution Licence. For more information:

AUTHOR SELF-ARCHIVING/PUBLIC ACCESS POLICY. For information about the Journal's policy, please visit our Author Self-Archiving policy page (


For information about this journal's policy, please visit our Author Self-Archiving policy page.


All authors publishing work in the JXB are expected to make novel materials used and described in the paper available for non-commercial research purposes. A statement concerning the availability, or restrictions on availability, should be included in the Materials and methods section of the paper. Whilst the JXB acknowledges that some materials such as enzymes, natural products, and antibodies require substantial effort to isolate, and that supplies may be limited, authors should be aware that it is up to the referees and editors to decide if stated restrictions on availability are reasonable.


The Journal of Experimental Botany requires that each author reveal any financial interests or connections, direct or indirect, or other situations that might raise the question of bias in the work reported or the conclusions, implications, or opinions stated, including pertinent commercial or other sources of funding for the individual author(s) or for the associated department(s) or organization(s), personal relationships, or direct academic competition. When considering whether you should declare a conflicting interest or connection please consider the conflict of interest test: Is there any arrangement that would embarrass you or any of your co-authors if it was to emerge after publication and you had not declared it?


Orders of offprints and charges for colour in print from the UK will be subject to the current VAT charge. For orders from elsewhere in the EU you or your institution should account for VAT by way of a reverse charge. Please provide us with your or your institution’s VAT number.


Details of all funding sources for the work in question should be given in a separate section entitled 'Funding'. This should appear before the 'Acknowledgements' section.

The following rules should be followed:

• The sentence should begin: ‘This work was supported by …’
• The full official funding agency name should be given, i.e. ‘the National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health’ or simply 'National Institutes of Health' not ‘NCI' (one of the 27 subinstitutions) or 'NCI at NIH’ (full RIN-approved list of UK funding agencies) [please make sure you change this blue link to as it is not working on many, many pages]
• Grant numbers should be complete and accurate and provided in brackets as follows: ‘[grant number ABX CDXXXXXX]’
• Multiple grant numbers should be separated by a comma as follows: ‘[grant numbers ABX CDXXXXXX, EFX GHXXXXXX]’
• Agencies should be separated by a semi-colon (plus ‘and’ before the last funding agency)
• Where individuals need to be specified for certain sources of funding the following text should be added after the relevant agency or grant number 'to [author initials]'.

An example is given here: ‘This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [P50 CA098252 and CA118790 to R.B.S.R.]
and the Alcohol & Education Research Council [HFY GR667789].


OUP offers pre-submission language editing through Oxford Language Editing, a service for researchers all over the world. Language editing, particularly if English is not your first language, can be used to ensure that the academic content of your paper is fully understood by the journal editors and reviewers. Visit to find out more about the freelance editors available and the different services offered. Please note that edited manuscripts will still need to undergo peer-review by the journal.


Please click here for a printable version of the instructions to authors.