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The Journals of Gerontology, Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences are published monthly by The Gerontological Society of America. The Society was founded in 1945 to promote the scientific study of aging, to encourage exchanges among researchers and practitioners from the various disciplines related to gerontology, and to foster the use of gerontological research in forming public policy. The Society's 5,400 members include leading gerontological researchers, educators, and practitioners in biological, medical, behavioral, and social sciences and the humanities. For more information about The Gerontological Society of America, visit


The Journal of Gerontology, Series A: Biological Sciences publishes articles on the biological aspects of aging in areas such as biochemistry, biodemography, cellular and molecular biology, comparative and evolutionary biology, endocrinology, exercise science, genetics, immunology, morphology, neuroscience, nutrition, pathology, pharmacology, physiology, vertebrate and invertebrate genetics and biological underpinnings of late life diseases. Please refer below to the Types of Manuscripts Considered for additional information about sections and types of manuscripts.

Due to the high volume of submissions, we are unable to offer pre-screening advice. Instead, please refer to the aims and scope of the journal to determine if The Journal of Gerontology, Series A: Biological Sciences is a suitable journal for your work.


The Journal of Gerontology, Series A: Biological Sciences will accept the following kinds of manuscripts:

Original Research: Original research reports present new research data that support or refute important hypotheses relevant to the biological study gerontology. The maximum allowable word count is 5800 words. The word count includes the title page, abstract, and text. References, tables and figures must not exceed an additional 10 pages.

Research Practice: Research practice manuscripts describe the development, validation or implementation of new research tools, techniques or approaches that may have a substantial impact on the future conduct of research in the study of the biological aspects of gerontology. The maximum allowable word count is 2800 words. The word count includes the title page, abstract, and text. References, tables and figures must not exceed an additional 7 pages.

Brief Report: Brief Reports are a brief examination of a topic that serves to introduce readers to some initial findings. It is not meant to be comprehensive. The maximum allowable word count is 2500 words. The word count includes the title page, abstract, and text. References, tables and figures must not exceed an additional 7 pages.

Reviews in Depth: Reviews in Depth are generally invited by the editor and are intended to be comprehensive in nature but the maximum allowable word count is 6000 words. The word count includes the title page, abstract, and text. References, tables and figures must not exceed an additional 10 pages. If you would like to submit a review, authors must contact the Editor in Chief prior to submission. If the Editor agrees that a review in a particular topic would be of interest, upon submission, please reference in your cover letter that this review has been approved by the Editor. When preparing a Review, authors will address topics on which considerable literature is available and will synthesize the state of knowledge in a particular area, presenting both positive and negative aspects of the subject, and identifying key unanswered questions or important research directions Meta-analyses are not Reviews in Depth and should be prepared according to the guidelines for Original Research.

Letters to the Editor: Letters must be, double spaced in a word document and be approximately 500 to 750 words. If appropriate, a copy will be sent to the author of the original article to provide an opportunity for rebuttal. Letters and rebuttals will be reviewed and are subject to editing. Usually both letter and rebuttal will be published in the same issue.

Comments on recently published articles of relevance to the Journal’s readership may be submitted in the format of Letters to the Editor but will be published under the heading ‘‘Commentaries on Recent Publications.’’

Guest Editorials: Guest editorials may be invited but unsolicited editorials may also be submitted. These should not exceed one printed page. The decision to publish will be exclusively the Editor’s.


Manuscripts must be submitted in Microsoft Word or a Word-compatible program at Manuscripts submitted in other formats will be unsubmitted and returned to the corresponding author for correction prior to editor review. Please DO NOT submit PDF versions of your manuscript submission materials. Failure to comply with the formatting requirements described below will result in your manuscript being returned without review.


Manuscripts should be prepared carefully according to the American Medical Association (AMA) Manual of Style, 9th Ed. (1998).


Ensure that the use of abbreviations is clear and that each one is defined in the text at its first mention only.

In-Text references

Number references in the text in the order in which they appear. Use Arabic numbers in parentheses, not superscripts.


Cover Letter (optional)

A cover letter is not required and is optional. It should explain how the manuscript is innovative, provocative, timely, and of interest to a broad audience, and other information authors wish to share with editors.

Title Page

A title page should be a completely separate page within the main document that includes the following:
(1) Title of the manuscript;
(2) All authors' full name(s), affiliations, and e-mail addresses; and
(3) Clear designation of the corresponding author, complete with an email address.

Abstract and Keywords

An unstructured abstract of no more than 200 words should be double spaced and ON A SEPARATE PAGE within the main document. The abstract should state the purpose of the study, basic procedures (study participants or experimental animals and observational and analytical methods), main findings and conclusions.

At the bottom of the abstract page, authors should supply three to five keywords that are NOT in the title. (Please avoid elders, older adults, or other words that would apply to all manuscripts.) Please note three keywords must be entered to move forward in the online submission process.


The text of observational, experimental and research practice articles is usually (but not necessarily) divided into sections with the headings: Introduction, Method, Results, and Discussion. Articles may need subheadings within some sections to clarify their content. The Discussion should not merely restate the results but should interpret the results.

(1) The word counts for the different kinds of publications considered by the journal are presented above and are inclusive of the title page, abstract and text.

(2) To manage the word and page counts, authors are encouraged to submit detailed methodology, tables and/or figures as supplemental files. If your manuscript is accepted, these files are available to readers online but do not count against the word count limits.

(3) If manuscripts exceed these word/page count limits, your manuscript may be returned to you for correction BEFORE the peer review process can begin. The abstract limit of 200 words is not negotiable. If you would like to appeal the word count limit for the text of the manuscript, permission must be granted by the Editor in Chief prior to submission. When submitting, please indicate in your cover letter that permission has been granted and the date it was granted.

Conflict of Interest

Please declare any conflict of interest, if applicable.


Details of all funding sources should be given in a separate section entitled Funding. This should appear after the text, before the Acknowledgements section. The following rules should be followed:
An example is given here: ‘This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health ([P50 CA098252 and CA118790 to R.B.S.R.); and the Alcohol & Education Research Council (HFY GR667789).’

•The sentence should begin: ‘This work was supported by …’

•The full official funding agency name should be given, i.e. ‘the National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health’ or simply 'National Institutes of Health' not ‘NCI' (one of the 27 subinstitutions) or 'NCI at NIH' (full RIN-approved list of UK funding agencies)

•Grant numbers should be complete and accurate and provided in parentheses as follows: ‘(grant number ABX CDXXXXXX)'

•Multiple grant numbers should be separated by a comma as follows: ‘(grant numbers ABX CDXXXXXX, EFX GHXXXXXX)’

•Agencies should be separated by a semi-colon (plus ‘and’ before the last funding agency)

•Where individuals need to be specified for certain sources of funding the following text should be added after the relevant agency or grant number 'to [author initials]'.

Oxford Journals will deposit all NIH-funded articles in PubMed Central. See for details. Authors must ensure that manuscripts are clearly indicated as NIH-funded using the guidelines above.

Crossref Funding Data Registry

In order to meet your funding requirements authors are required to name their funding sources, or state if there are none, during the submission process. For further information on this process or to find out more about the CHORUS initiative please click here.

Acknowledgments (Optional)

Acknowledgements and details of support must be included at the end of the text before references and not in footnotes. Personal acknowledgements should precede those of institutions or agencies. Please note that acknowledgement of funding agencies should be given in the separate Funding section.

Reference List

1) References should be listed numerically in the order in which they were first cited in the text.

(2) The references, figures, and tables must not exceed 10 pages. However there are no limits to the number of references you can cite.

(3) The reference style should conform to that given in the AMA Manual of Style. For periodicals, utilize the title observation as given in Index Medicus and list all authors when six or fewer; when seven or more, list only the first three and add et al. Examples are shown below.

Journal article

Brown JE, Smyth PT, Xu Y-C, et al. AMA reference style. J Med Style. 2007;26(1, pt 2):98-103.

Milunsky A. Prenatal detection of neural tube defects, VI: experience with 20,000 pregnancies. JAMA. 1980;244:2731–2735.

Books and other monographs

Stryer L. Biochemistry. 2nd ed. San Francisco, Calif: WH Freeman Co; 1981;559–596.

Part of a book

Kavet J. Trends in the utilization of influenza vaccine: an examination of the implementation of public policy in the United States. In: Selby P, ed. Influenza: Virus, Vaccines, and Strategy. Orlando, Fa: Academic Press, 1976:297-308. Notations of "unpublished work" or "personal communications" will not be accepted without documentation.


1. Each table should be on a separate page AND in Microsoft Word or a Word-compatible program.

2. Tables should be embedded at the end of the manuscript, after the references. Do not submit as separate files.

3. Number the tables consecutively using Arabic numbers and supply a brief title at the top for each.

4. Titles should describe the content of the table, the population to which the table refers, and other pertinent information so that the table is interpretable by the reader with minimal reference to the text.

5. Legends and lettered footnotes for the table should be typed immediately below the table in the following sequence: Notes; a, b, c, etc.; p values; all on separate lines.

6. Units in which results are expressed should be given in parentheses at the top of each column and not repeated in each line of the table. Ditto signs should not be used.

7. Avoid overcrowding the tables, the excessive use of words, and the use of multiple levels of column heads (called spanner heads). Place information pertaining to the column heads themselves in lettered footnotes; for instance, the number of observations, Ns, and log likelihood values. If the N is the same for all columns, include it in the table Notes instead of in the column heads.

8. Avoid abbreviations within the Table itself. If used, however, each abbreviation must be explained in the table’s Notes.

9. The format of tables should be in keeping with that normally used by the journal; in particular, vertical lines, color text, and shading should not be used.

10. Please be certain that the data given in tables are correct.

11. For horizontal alignment, column heads should be aligned on the first rule of the table or on spanner rules and entries in rows in the table body should be aligned on the top line of the entry.

12. For vertical alignment, columns of data should be aligned on common elements such as decimal points, plus/minus signs, or hyphens. If table entries consist of lengthy text, the flush-left format should be used with an indent for run over lines. If columns contain mixed data, please align on the decimal point.

13. There is a limit on the size of tables: Tables that take more than one manuscript page should be submitted as supplementary material and will posted online only.


The journal reserves the right to reduce the size of illustrative material. Each figure should be uploaded as a separate file. Figures should be submitted in TIF, .JPG, or .EPS format at sufficient resolution (i.e., 300 dpi at 5 in.) to be clear, sharp images when reduced to print size. Captions for figures should be typed double space on a separate page and include numbers corresponding to the proper figure.

Please note that photomicrographs are handled differently. They should also be submitted as high resolution (300 dpi at 5 in.); however, they are to be submitted as supplementary material. As supplementary material, they will appear online only.

Color Figures

Figures may appear in color online . Use of color in the print version of the journal is at the discretion of the editors. Color is only used where it is absolutely required for the scientific interpretation of the data presented. Please contact the Editorial Office for further information about color figures at

Captions for Tables and Illustrations

Put captions on a separate page with numbers corresponding to the illustrations. Figure captions should provide with sufficient information so that the reader can understand it with minimal reference to the text. Explain symbols, arrows, numbers, or letters used in illustrations. Explain internal scale and identify staining method in photomicrographs. Captions for tables and figures should be adequate to interpret the content of the table or figure without reference to the text.


All appendices will be published online only as supplementary material.

Supplementary Material

Supporting material can be made available by the publisher online-only and linked to the published article. This material includes supporting material that is not essential for inclusion in the full text to understand the conclusions of the paper but contains data that is additional or complementary and directly relevant to the article content and therefore may benefit the reader. Such information might include more detailed methods, extended data sets/data analysis, or additional figures.

It is standard practice for appendices to be made available online-only as supplementary material. All text and figures must be provided in suitable electronic formats. All material to be considered as supplementary material must be submitted for peer review as separate files at the same time as the main manuscript and indicated clearly as supplementary material. . Also ensure that the supplementary material is cited in the main manuscript where necessary, for example, "(see Supplementary material)" or "(see Supplementary Figure 1)." The material cannot be altered or replaced after the paper has been accepted for publication, and it will not be edited.


All appendices will be published online only as supplementary material (please see the description of Supplementary Material above).


Permissions for Illustrations and Figures

Permission to reproduce copyright material, for print and online publication in perpetuity, must be cleared and if necessary paid for by the author; this includes applications and payments to DACS, ARS and similar licensing agencies where appropriate. Evidence in writing that such permissions have been secured from the rights-holder must be made available to the editors. It is also the author's responsibility to include acknowledgements as stipulated by the particular institutions. Oxford Journals can offer information and documentation to assist authors in securing print and online permissions: please see Guidelines for Authors. Information on permissions contacts for a number of main galleries and museums can also be provided. Should you require copies of this, please contact the editorial office of the journal in question or the Oxford Journals Rights department.


The Journals of Gerontology, Series A: Biological Sciences expects that authors will observe high standards with respect to publication ethics. For example, the following practices are unacceptable: (1) falsification or fabrication of data, (2) plagiarism, including duplicate publication of the authors' own work, in whole or in part without proper citation, (3) misappropriation of the work of others such as omission of qualified authors or of information regarding financial support. Allegations of unethical conduct will be discussed initially with the corresponding author. In the event of continued dispute the matter will be referred to the author's institution and funding agencies for investigation and adjudication.

Oxford Journals, publisher of The Journals of Gerontology, Series A: Biological Sciences is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), and the journal strives to adhere to the COPE code of conduct and guidelines. For further information see


Manuscripts must be submitted online at Instructions on submitting your manuscript online can be viewed here. After reading the instructions, if you still have questions on how to submit your manuscript online, contact the Managing Editor at


All papers published in The Journal of Gerontology, Series A: Biological Sciences are subject to peer review. Papers that are outside the scope of the journal, that do not comply with the guidelines below or are otherwise judged to be unsuitable by the editor will be rejected without peer review. Peer-reviewed manuscripts are sent to at least two independent referees for evaluation. Authors are required to suggest reviewers of international standing. Reviewers advise on the originality and scientific merit of the paper; the editors make all final decisions on publication. The corresponding author will be notified via email with a decision and revision requirements, if applicable. Please ensure that email addresses are current for notification purposes.


Licenses and Copyright

It is a condition of publication in The Journal of Gerontology, Series A: Biological Sciences that authors grant an exclusive license to The Gerontological Society of America. This ensures that requests from third parties to reproduce articles are handled efficiently and consistently and will also allow the article to be as widely disseminated as possible. As part of the license agreement, authors may use their own material in other publications provided that The Journals of Gerontology, Series A is acknowledged as the original place of publication and Oxford University Press as the Publisher.

Upon receipt of accepted papers at Oxford Journals, authors will be required to complete an online copyright license to publish form. This form will be sent to the corresponding author via email.

Please note that by submitting a manuscript for consideration for publication, you confirm that you are the corresponding/submitting author and that Oxford University Press ("OUP") may retain your email address for the purpose of communicating with you about the submission. You agree to notify OUP immediately if your details change. If your article is accepted for publication OUP will contact you using the email address you designated in the submission process. Please note that OUP does not retain copies of rejected articles.

Information about the Creative Commons license can be found at
For additional information about your accepted paper, please contact the Editorial Office at


Advance Access

Advance Access allows for papers to be published online soon after they have been accepted for publication---reducing the time between submission and publication. Articles posted for Advance Access have been copyedited and typeset but not yet paginated for inclusion in a specific issue of the journal. Appearance in Advance Access constitutes official publication, with full-text functionality, and the Advance Access version can be cited by a unique DOI (Digital Object Identifier). The final manuscript is then paginated into an issue, at which point it is removed from the Advance Access page. Both versions of the paper continue to be accessible and citable.

Author Self-Archiving/Public Access Policy

For information about this journal's policy, please visit our Author Self-Archiving policy page

Open Access

The Journal of Gerontology, Series A: Biological Sciences authors have the option to publish their paper under the Oxford Open initiative; whereby, for a charge, their paper will be made freely available online immediately upon publication. After your manuscript is accepted, the corresponding author will be required to accept a mandatory license to publish agreement. As part of the licensing process, you will be asked to indicate whether or not you wish to pay for open access. If you do not select the open access option, your paper will be published with standard subscription-based access and you will not be charged.

Oxford Open articles are published under Creative Commons licenses.

RCUK/Wellcome Trust funded authors publishing in The Journals of Gerontology: Series A can use the Creative Commons Attribution license (CC-BY) for their articles.

All other authors may use the following Creative Commons licenses:
• Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial license (CC-BY-NC)
• Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives license (CC-BY-NC-ND)

Please click here for more information about the Creative Commons licenses.

You can pay Open Access charges using our Author Services site. This will enable you to pay online with a credit/debit card, or request an invoice by email or post. The applicable open access charges vary according to which Creative Commons license you select. The open access charges are as follows.

Charges for CC-BY
• Regular charge: £2125/ $3400 / €2763
• List B Developing country charge*: £1063/ $1700 / €1382
• List A Developing country charge*: £0 /$0 / €0

Charges for CC-BY-NC/CC-BY-NC-ND:
• Regular charge: £1875/ $3000 / €2438
• List B Developing country charge*: £1434/ $1500 / €1242
• List A Developing country charge*: £0 /$0 / €0

*Visit our developing countries page (click here for a list of qualifying countries).

Please note that these charges are in addition to any page charges and color charges that might apply.

Orders from the UK will be subject to the current UK VAT charge. For orders from the rest of the European Union, OUP will assume that the service is provided for business purposes. Please provide a VAT number for yourself or your institution and ensure you account for your own local VAT correctly.


Authors will receive electronic access to their paper free of charge. Printed offprints may be purchased in multiples of 50. Rates are indicated on the order form which must be returned with the proofs.


We encourage individuals to serve as a mentor to new professionals interested in the review process for The Journal of Gerontology, Series A: Biological Sciences.

For additional information, please contact the Managing Editor at


Questions? Contact the Editorial Office at

Published on behalf of

The Gerontological Society of America

Impact Factor: 5.476

5-Yr impact factor: 5.017

Editorial Boards

The Journals of Gerontology, Series A: Biological Sciences

Rafael de Cabo, PhD, Editor

The Journals of Gerontology, Series A: Medical Sciences

Stephen B. Kritchevsky, PhD