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Please note that the journal now encourages authors to complete their copyright license to publish forms online!

Lea estas instrucciones para autores en español.


The Journals of Gerontology, Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences are published monthly by The Gerontological Society of America. The Society was founded in 1945 to promote the scientific study of aging, to encourage exchanges among researchers and practitioners from the various disciplines related to gerontology, and to foster the use of gerontological research in forming public policy. The Society's 6,000 members include leading gerontological researchers, educators, and practitioners in biological, medical, behavioral, and social sciences and the humanities.

On this page:

Preparation of Manuscripts
Licences, Offprints and Submissions
Permissions for Illustrations and Figures
Supplementary Material
Language Editing
Advance Access
Open Access Option for Authors
Authors Self-Archiving/Public Access Policy
Correspondence (Editorial)


Manuscripts must be submitted online. Once you have prepared your manuscript according to the instructions below, please visit the online submission Web site. Instructions on submitting your manuscript online can be viewed here.

Manuscripts should be prepared carefully according to the American Medical Association (AMA) Manual of Style. 9th Ed. (1998). This manual is available at many academic and technical bookstores: some aspects are summarized below.

Submission of a manuscript to the journal implies that it has not been published or is not under consideration elsewhere. If accepted for this journal, it is not to be published elsewhere without permission. As a further condition of publication, the corresponding author will be responsible, where appropriate, for certifying that permission has been received to use copyrighted instruments or software employed in the research and that human or animal subjects approval has been obtained. In the case of co-authored manuscripts, the corresponding author will also be responsible for submitting a letter, signed by all authors, indicating that they actively participated in the collaborative work leading to the publication and agree to be listed as an author on the paper. These assurances will be requested at the time a paper has been formally accepted for publication.

Manuscript Preparation for Articles Describing Original Research

Preparing the manuscript. Submission of manuscript text files in Microsoft Word is essential. Failure to comply with this aspect of submission will result in your manuscript being returned to you and thus delay handling of the manuscript.

Title page. A title page should be a completely separate page that includes the following:
(1) Title of the manuscript,
(2) All authors' full name(s), and affiliations,
(3) Corresponding authors must provide complete mailing address information, including: name, e-mail address, telephone, and fax numbers,
(4) A short running page headline not to exceed 40 letters and spaces should be placed at the foot of the title page.

Failure to comply with this formatting of the title page will result in your manuscript being returned to you.

Abstract. Abstracts are required for both Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences. There are different requirements for each publication. Please, refer to the correct requirements. If your abstract is not correctly formatted, your manuscript will be returned to you.
Biological Sciences: An abstract of not more than 200 words should be typed, double spaced and ON A SEPARATE PAGE. It should state the purpose of the study, basic procedures (study participants or experimental animals and observational and analytical methods), main findings and conclusions.
Medical Sciences:An abstract of not more than 250 words should be typed, double spaced, and ON A SEPARATE PAGE. It should state the purpose of the study, basic procedures (study participants and observational and analytical methods), main findings, and conclusions. NOTE: For Medical Sciences only, the abstracts must contain the following headers: Background, Methods, Results, and Conclusions.

Text. The text of observational and experimental articles is usually (but not necessarily) divided into sections with the headings: Introduction, Method, Results, and Discussion. Articles may need subheadings within some sections to clarify their content. The Discussion should not merely restate the results but should interpret the results.

NOTE: For Medical Sciences only, the word count, for everything, including the title page information, abstract, text, references, tables, figures, and captions cannot exceed 4800 words. For Biological Sciences, the title page information, abstract, text, WITH references, cannot exceed 5800 words. Tables, figures and captions cannot exceed an additional 1000 words. If manuscripts greatly exceed these word/page count limits, your manuscript may be returned to you for correction BEFORE the peer review process can begin. If you would like to appeal the word count limit, it must be done prior to submission and permission must be granted by the Editor in Chief. When submitting, please indicate in your cover letter that permission has been granted and when.

Abbreviations (for Medical Sciences only). Do not use abbreviations for any word/phrase unless that word/phrase has been used 5 or more times in running text.

Abbreviations (for Biological Sciences only). Ensure that the use of abbreviations is clear and that each one is defined in the text at its first mention only.

Text references. Number references in the text in the order in which they appear. Use arabic numbers in parentheses, not superscripts.

Reference list. Type double spaced. List references by number in the order in which they were first cited in the text. The reference style should conform to that given in the AMA Manual of Style. For periodicals, utilize the title observation as given in Index Medicus and list all authors when six or fewer; when seven or more, list only the first three and add et al. Examples are shown below.

NOTE: For Medical Sciences only, the references should be limited to 40 references. If your manuscript cites more than 40 references, your manuscript will be returned to you for correction before the peer review process can begin.

Journal article

Milunsky A. Prenatal detection of neural tube defects, VI: experience with 20,000 pregnancies. JAMA. 1980;244:2731–2735.

Books and other monographs

Stryer L. Biochemistry. 2nd ed. San Francisco, Calif: WH Freeman Co; 1981;559–596.

Part of a book

Kavet J. Trends in the utilization of influenza vaccine: an examination of the implementation of public policy in the United States. In: Selby P, ed. Influenza: Virus, Vaccines, and Strategy. Orlando, Fa: Academic Press, 1976:297-308. Notations of "unpublished work" or "personal communications" will not be accepted without documentation.


Acknowledgments, preliminary reports or abstract presentation, and current location of authors, if different from the title page, may be indicated. Acknowledgements and details of support must be included at the end of the text before references and not in footnotes (see below under Funding). Personal acknowledgements should precede those of institutions or agencies. Give name and mailing/e-mail addresses of author to whom correspondence should be addressed. Please note that acknowledgement of funding agencies should be given in the separate Funding section.

High-Priority Manuscripts: High-priority manuscripts are identified by the Editor or Deputy Editor and the appropriate Associate Editor as: (a) well written and requiring no/minimal revisions; (b) describing a well-designed experiment; and (c) pertaining to an important or topical subject. Such manuscripts will be processed within weeks and published within 3 months of acceptance. Manuscripts should be prepared as described above.

Perspectives: (BioSci only) Perspectives are usually invited by the Editor, although unsolicited Perspectives may be submitted for consideration. Perspectives are not comprehensive reviews; rather they are focused treatments of controversial or insightful issues of immediate concern. Manuscripts should be prepared as described above in “Manuscript Preparation for Articles Describing Original Research” and should be less than 2000 words.

In Focus: (BioSci only) In Focus articles are usually invited by the Editor, although unsolicited articles may be submitted for consideration. These are focused treatments of controversial or insightful issues of immediate concern. In Focus articles are limited to 500 words. Manuscripts should be prepared as described above in “Manuscript Preparation for Articles Describing Original Research.”

Brief Report: Brief Reports are a brief examination of a topic that serves to introduce readers to some initial findings. It is not meant to be comprehensive. The word count cannot exceed 2800 words, inclusive of EVERYTHING.

Letters to the Editor: (Both BioSci and MedSci) Letters must be typewritten, double spaced, approximately 500 to 750 words. If appropriate, a copy will be sent to the author of the original article to provide an opportunity for rebuttal. Letters and rebuttals will be reviewed and are subject to editing. Usually both letter and rebuttal will be published in the same issue.

Comments on recently published articles may be submitted in the format of Letters to the Editor but will be published under the heading ‘‘Commentaries on Recent Publications.’’ Comments on articles published in any peer reviewed journal are welcome.

Guest Editorials: (Both BioSci and MedSci) Guest editorials may be invited but unsolicited editorials may also be submitted. These should not exceed one printed page. Manuscript preparation should follow the guidelines as described above in “Manuscript Preparation for Articles Describing Original Research.” The decision to publish will be exclusively the Editor’s.

Reviews in Depth: (Both BioSci and MedSci) Reviews in Depth are generally invited by the editor and are intended to be comprehensive in nature but are limited to 5000 words. If you would like to submit a review, authors must contact the appropriate Editor in Chief prior to submission. If the Editor agrees that a review in a particular topic would be of interest, upon submission, please reference in your cover letter that this review has been approved by the Editor. When preparing a Review, authors will address topics on which considerable literature is available and will synthesize the state of knowledge in a particular area, presenting both positive and negative aspects of the subject. Manuscript preparation should follow the guidelines as described above in “Manuscript Preparation for Articles Describing Original Research.”


Each table should be typed, double spaced, on a separate sheet. Tables can either be separate files or at the end of the manuscript, after the references. Do not embed your tables within your manuscript. If you embed your tables, your manuscript will be returned to you for correction before it enters peer review. Number the tables consecutively using Arabic numbers and supply a brief title at the top for each. Legends and footnotes for the table are typed immediately below the table and should follow the sequence cited in the AMA Manual of Style: *, _, _, §, ||, {, #, **, __, etc. Units in which results are expressed should be given in parentheses at the top of each column and not repeated in each line of the table. Ditto signs should not be used. Avoid overcrowding the tables and the excessive use of words. The format of tables should be in keeping with that normally used by the journal; in particular, vertical lines should not be drawn. Please be certain that the data given in tables are correct.

Entries should be aligned across the first or top line of the table for horizontal alignment.

For vertical alignment, columns of data should be aligned on common elements such as decimal points, plus/minus signs, or hyphens. If table entries consist of lengthy text, the flush-left format should be used with an indent for run over lines.

If columns contain mixed data, please align on the decimal point.


Figures should be submitted in TIF, EPS, PDF, or JPG formats at sufficient resolution to be clear, sharp images when reduced to print size (see below under Figures).

Please be aware that the requirements for online submission and for reproduction in the journal are different:
(i) For online submission and peer review, please upload your figures either embedded in the word processing file at the end of the manuscript, following references and tables, or separately as low-resolution images (.jpg, .tif, .gif or.eps) DO NOT EMBED THE FIGURES WITHIN THE BODY OF THE TEXT.
(ii) For reproduction in the journal, you will be required at revised submission stages to supply high-resolution .tif files (1200 d.p.i. for line drawings and 300 d.p.i. for colour and half-tone artwork) or high-quality printouts on glossy paper. We advise that you create your high-resolution images first as these can be easily converted into low-resolution images for online submission. For useful information on preparing your figures for publication, go to

Please note that all labels used in figures should be in upper case in both the figure and the caption. The journal reserves the right to reduce the size of illustrative material.

Color figures.
Please contact the production editor for information about color.

Captions for tables and illustrations

Type captions double spaced on a separate page with numbers corresponding to the illustrations. Explain symbols, arrows, numbers, or letters used in illustrations. Explain internal scale and identify staining method in photomicrographs. Captions for tables and illustrations should be adequate to interpret the content of the table or figure without reference to the text.


It is a condition of publication in The Journals of Gerontology, Series A that authors grant an exclusive license to the Gerontological Society of America. This ensures that requests from third parties to reproduce articles are handled efficiently and consistently and will also allow the article to be as widely disseminated as possible. As part of the license agreement, authors may use their own material in other publications provided that The Journals of Gerontology, Series A is acknowledged as the original place of publication and Oxford University Press as the Publisher.

Upon receipt of accepted manuscripts at Oxford Journals authors will be invited to complete an online copyright license to publish form.

Please note that by submitting an article for publication, you confirm that you are the corresponding/submitting author and that Oxford University Press ("OUP") may retain your email address for the purpose of communicating with you about the article. You agree to notify OUP immediately if your details change. If your article is accepted for publication OUP will contact you using the email address you have used in the registration process. Please note that OUP does not retain copies of rejected articles.

Information about the Creative Commons licence can be found at

Authors will receive electronic access to their paper free of charge. Printed offprints may be purchased in multiples of 50. Rates are indicated on the order form which must be returned with the proofs.


Permission to reproduce copyright material, for print and online publication in perpetuity, must be cleared and if necessary paid for by the author; this includes applications and payments to DACS, ARS and similar licencing agencies where appropriate. Evidence in writing that such permissions have been secured from the rights-holder must be made available to the editors. It is also the author's responsibility to include acknowledgements as stipulated by the particular institutions. Oxford Journals can offer information and documentation to assist authors in securing print and online permissions: please see Guidelines for Authors. Information on permissions contacts for a number of main galleries and museums can also be provided. Should you require copies of this, please contact the editorial office of the journal in question or the Oxford Journals Rights department.


Details of all funding sources for the work in question should be given in a separate section entitled Funding. This should appear before the Acknowledgements section.

The following rules should be followed:

An example is given here: ‘This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health ([P50 CA098252 and CA118790 to R.B.S.R.); and the Alcohol & Education Research Council (HFY GR667789).’

  • The sentence should begin: ‘This work was supported by …’
  • The full official funding agency name should be given, i.e. ‘the National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health’ or simply 'National Institutes of Health' not ‘NCI' (one of the 27 subinstitutions) or 'NCI at NIH' (full RIN-approved list of UK funding agencies)
  • Grant numbers should be complete and accurate and provided in parentheses as follows: ‘(grant number ABX CDXXXXXX)'
  • Multiple grant numbers should be separated by a comma as follows: ‘(grant numbers ABX CDXXXXXX, EFX GHXXXXXX)’
  • Agencies should be separated by a semi-colon (plus ‘and’ before the last funding agency)
  • Where individuals need to be specified for certain sources of funding the following text should be added after the relevant agency or grant number 'to [author initials]'.

Oxford Journals will deposit all NIH-funded articles in PubMed Central. See for details. Authors must ensure that manuscripts are clearly indicated as NIH-funded using the guidelines above.


Supporting material that is not essential for inclusion in the full text of the manuscript, but would nevertheless benefit the reader, can be made available by the publisher as online-only content, linked to the online manuscript. The material should not be essential to understanding the conclusions of the paper, but should contain data that is additional or complementary and directly relevant to the article content. Such information might include more detailed methods, extended data sets/data analysis, or additional figures.

It is standard practice for appendices to be made available online-only as supplementary material. All text and figures must be provided in suitable electronic formats. All material to be considered as supplementary material must be submitted at the same time as the main manuscript for peer review. It cannot be altered or replaced after the paper has been accepted for publication, and will not be edited. Please indicate clearly the material intended as supplementary material upon submission. Also ensure that the supplementary material is referred to in the main manuscript where necessary, for example as "(see Supplementary material)" or "(see Supplementary Figure 1)."


Particularly if English is not your first language, before submitting your manuscript you may wish to have it edited for correct usage of American English. This is not a mandatory step, but may help to ensure that the academic content of your paper is fully understood by journal editors and reviewers. Language editing does not guarantee that your manuscript will be accepted for publication. If you would like information about one such service please click here. There are other specialist language editing companies that offer similar services and you can also use any of these. Authors are liable for all costs associated with such services.


Advance Access allows for papers to be published online soon after they have been accepted for publication---reducing the time between submission and publication. Articles posted for Advance Access have been copyedited and typeset but not yet paginated for inclusion in a specific issue of the journal. Appearance in Advance Access constitutes official publication, with full-text functionality, and the Advance Access version can be cited by a unique DOI (Digital Object Identifier). The final manuscript is then paginated into an issue, at which point it is removed from the Advance Access page. Both versions of the paper continue to be accessible and citable.


The Journals of Gerontology: Series A authors have the option to publish their paper under the Oxford Open initiative; whereby, for a charge, their paper will be made freely available online immediately upon publication. After your manuscript is accepted, the corresponding author will be required to accept a mandatory licence to publish agreement. As part of the licensing process, you will be asked to indicate whether or not you wish to pay for open access. If you do not select the open access option, your paper will be published with standard subscription-based access and you will not be charged.

Oxford Open articles are published under Creative Commons licences.

RCUK/Wellcome Trust funded authors publishing in The Journals of Gerontology: Series A can use the Creative Commons Attribution licence (CC-BY) for their articles.

All other authors may use the following Creative Commons licences:
• Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial licence (CC-BY-NC)
• Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives licence (CC-BY-NC-ND)

Please click here for more information about the Creative Commons licences.

You can pay Open Access charges using our Author Services site. This will enable you to pay online with a credit/debit card, or request an invoice by email or post. The applicable open access charges vary according to which Creative Commons licence you select. The open access charges are as follows.

Charges for CC-BY
• Regular charge: £2125/ $3400 / €2763
• List B Developing country charge*: £1063/ $1700 / €1382
• List A Developing country charge*: £0 /$0 / €0

Charges for CC-BY-NC/CC-BY-NC-ND:
• Regular charge: £1875/ $3000 / €2438
• List B Developing country charge*: £1434/ $1500 / €1242
• List A Developing country charge*: £0 /$0 / €0

*Visit our developing countries page (click here for a list of qualifying countries).

Please note that these charges are in addition to any page charges and color charges that might apply.

Orders from the UK will be subject to the current UK VAT charge. For orders from the rest of the European Union, OUP will assume that the service is provided for business purposes. Please provide a VAT number for yourself or your institution and ensure you account for your own local VAT correctly.


For information about this journal's policy, please visit our Author Self-Archiving policy page.


The Journals of Gerontology, Series A expects that authors will observe high standards with respect to publication ethics. For example, the following practices are unacceptable: (1) falsification or fabrication of data, (2) plagiarism, including duplicate publication of the authors' own work, in whole or in part without proper citation, (3) misappropriation of the work of others such as omission of qualified authors or of information regarding financial support. Allegations of unethical conduct will be discussed initially with the corresponding author. In the event of continued dispute the matter will be referred to the author's institution and funding agencies for investigation and adjudication.

Oxford Journals, publisher of The Journals of Gerontology, Series A, is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), and the journal strives to adhere to the COPE code of conduct and guidelines. For further information see


Once you have prepared your manuscript according to the instructions, please visit The Journals of Gerontology, Series A: Biological Sciences online submission site or The Journals of Gerontology, Series A: Medical Sciences online submission site. Instructions on submitting your manuscript online can be viewed here.

By email manuscripts must be submitted by email, as attachments.


Please see manuscript preparation for full details on the style used in The Journals of Gerontology, Series A.


The Editorial Office can be contacted as follows:

Rafael de Cabo, Ph.D.
4211 Kenwood Ave.
Baltimore MD 21206
tel: 410-852-8651

Stephen B. Kritchevsky, PhD
Wake Forest University Health Sciences
Medical Center Blvd.
Winston-Salem, NC 27157-1207
tel: 336-713-8548

Impact Factor: 4.314

5-Yr impact factor: 4.604

Editorial Boards

The Journals of Gerontology, Series A: Biological Sciences

Rafael de Cabo, PhD, Editor

The Journals of Gerontology, Series A: Medical Sciences

Stephen B. Kritchevsky, PhD

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