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March 2011: The journal has changed its citation format.

All articles accepted after March 1, 2011 will be cited using the following format:

The Journals of Gerontology, Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, vv, xxx-xxx.

(Note specifically, it starts with “The”; there is a comma and not hyphen before Series; there is no B on the volume number; and the letters have been removed from the page numbers.)

Please note that articles being cited prior to March 1, 2011 should be cited using the format in which they were originally published. Contact the with any questions.

Please note that the journal now encourages authors to complete their copyright license to publish forms online!

The Journals of Gerontology, Series B: Psychological and Social Sciences are published bi-monthly by The Gerontological Society of America. The Society was founded in 1945 to promote the scientific study of aging, to encourage exchanges among researchers and practitioners from the various disciplines related to gerontology, and to foster the use of gerontological research in forming public policy. The Society's 5,500 members include leading gerontological researchers, educators, and practitioners in biological, medical, behavioral, and social sciences and the humanities.

The Journal of Gerontology, Series B: Social Sciences publishes articles using a variety of theoretical and methodological approaches encompassing quantitative, qualitative, experimental, and non-experimental research. Authors are encouraged to submit papers in areas such as anthropology, demography, economics, epidemiology, geography, health services research, political science, public health, social history, social work, and sociology.
Due to the high volume of submissions, we are unable to offer pre-screening advice. Instead, please refer to the aims and scope of the journal to determine if the journal is a suitable venue for your work.

On this page:

Instructions to Authors in Other Languages
Aims and Scope of the Journal
Types of Manuscripts Considered
Components of the Manuscript
Additional Policies and Considerations
How to Submit Online Using ScholarOne
Review Process
Paper Acceptance Information
Author Rights and Benefits
Opportunities for Mentors


The Journal of Gerontology, Series B: Social Sciences will accept the following kinds of manuscripts:
Original Research Reports: The maximum allowable word count of manuscripts reporting empirical studies should not exceed 5,000 words; in unusual circumstances (multi-study reports, complex analyses), authors may submit up to 6,000 words of text. The word count includes title page, abstract and text. References, tables and figures must not exceed an additional 10 pages.

Brief Reports: The maximum allowable word count is 2,000 words. The word count includes title page, abstract and text. References, tables and figures must not exceed an additional 5 pages.

New Directions in Aging Research: The goal of these review articles is an integrative presentation of findings on a cutting-edge topic with attention to theoretical and methodological implications for future work on the selected topic. It is expected that these papers will include a novel integration and critical analysis of existing views in a specific area that has not been reviewed elsewhere, as well as proposed resolution(s) of controversial positions to advance the field. Methodological contributions should present innovative methods for the study of adult development and aging, which should be supported with examples based upon empirical data if possible. The maximum allowable word count is 5,000 words; in unusual circumstances (multi-study reports, complex analyses), authors may submit up to 6,000 words of text. The word count includes title page, abstract and text. References, tables and figures must not exceed an additional 10 pages.


Manuscripts must be submitted in Microsoft Word or a Word-compatible program at Manuscripts submitted in other formats will be unsubmitted and returned to the corresponding author for correction prior to editor review. Please DO NOT submit PDF versions of your manuscript submission materials. Failure to comply with the formatting requirements described below will result in your manuscript being returned without review.


Manuscripts should be prepared using APA style. For detailed information, refer to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.),


Ensure that the use of abbreviations is clear and that each one is defined in the text at its first mention only.


Footnotes, indicated by superscript figures in the text, should be used rarely and only for essential explanatory notes. Footnotes should be numbered consecutively, should be kept as brief as possible, and should be placed on a separate page. Authors are responsible for checking the accuracy of all footnotes and references.


Cover Letter (optional)

A cover letter is not required and is optional. It should explain how the manuscript is innovative, provocative, timely, and of interest to a broad audience, and other information authors wish to share with editors. Note: The cover letter for manuscripts will NOT be shared with reviewers.

Title Page with Author Information and Acknowledgements

The title page should be a separate file, not merged into the manuscript file. This document will not be viewable by reviewers, but will remain with the online submission. It should contain the following:

(1) Title of the manuscript,
(2) All authors' full name(s) and affiliations.
(3) Corresponding author should be clearly designated and email address provided. (4) A short running page headline not to exceed 50 letters and spaces should be placed at the top of the title page.
(5) Funding details and (optional) acknowledgement See Funding section for more information.
(6) Please declare any conflict of interest, if applicable.
Author contributions to the manuscript should be indicated. For example: A.B. Cox planned the study, supervised the data analysis, and wrote the paper. D.E. Furr performed all statistical analyses and contributed to revising the paper. G.H. Irwin and J.K. Lyon helped plan the study, including instrumentation, and revise the manuscript. Please indicate where correspondence should be addressed; list e-mail address after the zip code.


Details of all funding sources should be given on the detailed title page.
When providing details of funding sources, the following rules should be followed:

• The sentence should begin: ‘This work was supported by …’

• The full official funding agency name should be given, i.e. ‘the National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health’ or simply 'National Institutes of Health' not ‘NCI' (one of the 27 subinstitutions) or 'NCI at NIH' (full RIN-approved list of UK funding agencies)

• Grant numbers should be complete and accurate and provided in parentheses as follows: ‘(grant number ABX CDXXXXXX)'

• Multiple grant numbers should be separated by a comma as follows: ‘(grant numbers ABX CDXXXXXX, EFX GHXXXXXX)’

• Agencies should be separated by a semi-colon (plus ‘and’ before the last funding agency)

• Where individuals need to be specified for certain sources of funding the following text should be added after the relevant agency or grant number 'to [author initials]'.

An example is given here: ‘This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health (P50 CA098252 and CA118790 to R.B.S.R.); and the Alcohol & Education Research Council (HFY GR667789).’

Abstract and Key Words

On the page immediately following the title page, include a structured abstract of no more than 200 words, double spaced. It should contain four headers: Objectives, Method, Results, and Discussion.
At the bottom of the abstract pages, authors should supply three to five key words that are NOT in the title. (Please avoid elders, older adults, or other words that would apply to all manuscripts.) Please note three key words must be entered in order to move forward in the online submission process.


The Journal of Gerontology, Series B: Social Sciences employs a double-blind peer review to ensure an impartial evaluation. Manuscript files must be uploaded to the Web site with all identifying information removed, including author identification on the title page and self- references in the body of the text. If the manuscript is accepted for publication, the corresponding author will be required to submit a final version of the accepted paper with the identifying information included.

The text of research articles should be divided into major sections with the headings Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion. Articles may require subheadings within sections to clarify their content. The Discussion should not merely restate the results but should interpret the results.

(1) The word counts for the different kinds of publications considered by the Journal are presented above and are inclusive of the title page, abstract and text.

(2) To manage the word and page counts, authors are encouraged to submit detailed methodology, tables and/or figures as supplemental files. If your manuscript is accepted, these files are available to readers on line but do not count against the word count limits.

(3) If manuscripts exceed these word/page count limits, your manuscript may be returned to you for correction BEFORE the peer review process can begin. The abstract limit of 200 words is not negotiable. If you would like to the word count limit for the text of the manuscript, permission must be granted by the Editor in Chief prior to submission. When submitting, please indicate in your cover letter that permission has been granted and the date it was granted.


In-text citations and references of journals, books, multi-author books and articles published online should conform to the 6th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (2009). References in the text are shown by citing in parentheses the author’s surname and/or the year of publication [E.g., “A recent study (Jones, 2007) showed, or Jones (2007) has shown].

The reference list should be double spaced and arranged alphabetically by author’s surname; do not number. The reference list should include only references cited in the text and should generally not exceed 50 entries for original research and theoretical/methodological articles, and 30 for brief reports. Do not include references to private communications. Please add Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) to the reference section. One way to locate the DOIs is to use This is a free service by which one submits a formatted reference list and it returns the DOIs for the cited articles. After creating an account, go to Simple Text Query in the Technical Resources options.


Tables should be typed with double spacing, but minimizing redundant space and each should be placed on a separate page. Each table should be numbered in sequence using Arabic numerals. Tables should also have a title above and an explanatory footnote below, if needed. Units in which results are expressed should be given in parentheses at the top of each column and not repeated in each line of the table. Ditto signs should not be used. Avoid overcrowding the tables and the excessive use of words. The format of tables should be in keeping with APA style; in particular, vertical lines, colored text and shading should not be used. Please be certain that the data given in tables are correct.

Figures / Illustrations

Please upload each figure separately as an image (.jpg, .tif, or.eps) set at 1200 d.p.i. for line drawings and 300 d.p.i. for colour and half-tone artwork. Captions for figures should be typed double spaced on a separate page and include numbers corresponding to the proper figure. The journal reserves the right to reduce the size of illustrative material.

For useful information on preparing your figures for publication, go to

Color Figures

Figures may appear in color online, but will only appear in print when deemed necessary. Please contact the Editorial Office for further information about color figures at

Captions for Tables and Illustrations

Type captions double spaced on a separate page with numbers corresponding to the illustrations. Figure captions should provide with sufficient information so that the reader can understand it with minimal reference to the text. Explain symbols, arrows, numbers, or letters used in illustrations. Explain internal scale and identify staining method in photomicrographs. Captions for tables and figures should be adequate to interpret the content of the table or figure without reference to the text.

Supplementary Material

Supporting material that is not essential for inclusion in the full text of the manuscript, but would nevertheless benefit the reader, can be made available by the publisher as online-only supplementary material, linked to the online manuscript. The material should not be essential to understanding the conclusions of the paper, but should contain data that are additional or complementary and directly relevant to the article content. Such information might include more detailed methods, extended data sets/data analysis, or additional figures.

It is standard practice for appendices to be made available online-only as supplementary data. All text and figures must be provided in suitable electronic formats. All material to be considered as supplementary data must be submitted at the same time as the main manuscript for peer review. Supplementary material cannot be altered or replaced after the paper has been accepted for publication, and will not be edited. Please indicate clearly all material intended as supplementary data upon submission. Also ensure that the supplementary data are referred to in the main manuscript where necessary, for example as '(see Supplementary data)' or '(see Supplementary Figure 1)'.


Permission for Illustrations and Figures

Permission to reproduce copyright material, for print and online publication in perpetuity, must be cleared and if necessary paid for by the author; this includes applications and payments to DACS, ARS and similar licensing agencies where appropriate. Evidence in writing that such permissions have been secured from the rights-holder must be made available to the editors. It is also the author's responsibility to include acknowledgements as stipulated by the particular institutions. Please note that obtaining copyright permission could take some time. Oxford Journals can offer information and documentation to assist authors in securing print and online permissions: please see the Guidelines for Authors section at // Should you require copies of this then please contact the editorial office of the journal in question or else the Oxford Journals Rights department.


The Journal of Gerontology, Series B: Social Sciences expects that authors will observe high standards with respect to publication ethics. For example, the following practices are unacceptable: (a) falsification or fabrication of data; (b) plagiarism, including duplicate publication of the authors' own work, in whole or in part, without proper citation; (c) misappropriation of the work of others such as omission of qualified authors or of information regarding financial support. Allegations of unethical conduct will be discussed initially with the corresponding author. In the event of continued dispute the matter will be referred to the author's institution and funding agencies for investigation and adjudication.

Oxford Journals, publisher of The Journal of Gerontology, Series B: Social Sciences, is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), and the journal strives to adhere to the COPE code of conduct and guidelines. For further information, see "">

Submission of a manuscript to the journal implies that it has not been published or is not under consideration elsewhere. If accepted for this journal, it is not to be published elsewhere without permission. As a further condition of publication, the corresponding author will be responsible, where appropriate, for certifying that permission has been received to use copyrighted instruments or software employed in the research and that human or animal subjects approval has been obtained.

In the case of co-authored manuscripts, the corresponding author will also be responsible for submitting a letter, signed by all authors, indicating that they actively participated in the collaborative work leading to the publication and agree to be listed as an author on the paper. These assurances will be requested at the time a paper has been formally accepted for publication.

Language Editing

Particularly if English is not your first language, before submitting your manuscript you may wish to have it edited for correct usage of American English. This is not a mandatory step, but may help to ensure that the academic content of your paper is fully understood by journal editors and reviewers. Language editing does not guarantee that your manuscript will be accepted for publication. If you would like information about one such service please click here. There are other specialist language editing companies that offer similar services and you can also use any of these. Authors are liable for all costs associated with such services.


Manuscripts must be submitted online at The Journals of Gerontology, Series B: Social Sciences online submission site. Instructions on submitting your manuscript online can be viewed here. After reading the instructions, if you still have questions on how to submit your manuscript online, contact the Editorial Office at


All papers published in the Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences are subject to peer review. Papers that are outside the scope of the journal, that do not comply with the guidelines below or are otherwise judged to be unsuitable by the editor will be rejected without peer review. Peer-reviewed manuscripts are sent to at least two independent referees for evaluation. Authors are required to suggest reviewers of international standing. Reviewers advise on the originality and scientific merit of the paper; the editors make all final decisions on publication. Corresponding authors will be notified via email with decisions and revision requirements, if applicable. Please ensure that email addresses are current for notification purposes.


Licenses and Copywright

It is a condition of publication in The Journals of Gerontology, Series B that authors grant an exclusive license to the Gerontological Society of America. This ensures that requests from third parties to reproduce articles are handled efficiently and consistently and will also allow the article to be as widely disseminated as possible. As part of the license agreement, authors may use their own material in other publications provided that The Journals of Gerontology, Series B is acknowledged as the original place of publication and Oxford University Press as the Publisher.

Upon receipt of accepted papers at Oxford Journals, authors will be required to complete an online copyright license to publish form. This form will be sent to the corresponding author via email.

Please note that by submitting a manuscript for consideration for publication, you confirm that you are the corresponding/submitting author and that Oxford University Press ("OUP") may retain your email address for the purpose of communicating with you about the submission. You agree to notify OUP immediately if your details change. If your article is accepted for publication OUP will contact you using the email address you designated in the submission process. Please note that OUP does not retain copies of rejected articles.

Information about the Creative Commons license can be found at

For additional information about your accepted paper, please contact the Editorial Office at

For post acceptance information, contact the Editorial Office at


Advance Access

Advance Access allows for papers to be published online soon after they have been accepted for publication---reducing the time between submission and publication. Articles posted for Advance Access have been copyedited and typeset but not yet paginated for inclusion in a specific issue of the journal. Appearance in Advance Access constitutes official publication, with full-text functionality, and the Advance Access version can be cited by a unique DOI (Digital Object Identifier). The final manuscript is then paginated into an issue, at which point it is removed from the Advance Access page. Both versions of the paper continue to be accessible and citable.

Author Self-Archiving/Public Access Policy

For information about this journal's policy, please visit our Author Self-Archiving policy page.

Open Access

The Journals of Gerontology: Series B authors have the option to publish their paper under the Oxford Open initiative; whereby, for a charge, their paper will be made freely available online immediately upon publication. After your manuscript is accepted, the corresponding author will be required to accept a mandatory license to publish agreement. As part of the licensing process, you will be asked to indicate whether or not you wish to pay for open access. If you do not select the open access option, your paper will be published with standard subscription-based access and you will not be charged.

Oxford Open articles are published under Creative Commons licenses.

RCUK/Wellcome Trust funded authors publishing in The Journals of Gerontology: Series B can use the Creative Commons Attribution license (CC-BY) for their articles.

All other authors may use the following Creative Commons licenses:
• Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial license (CC-BY-NC)
• Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives license (CC-BY-NC-ND)

Please click here for more information about the Creative Commons licenses.

You can pay Open Access charges using our Author Services site. This will enable you to pay online with a credit/debit card, or request an invoice by email or post. The applicable open access charges vary according to which Creative Commons licence you select. The open access charges are as follows.

Charges for CC-BY
• Regular charge: £2125/ $3400 / €2763
• List B Developing country charge*: £1063/ $1700 / €1382
• List A Developing country charge*: £0 /$0 / €0

Charges for CC-BY-NC/CC-BY-NC-ND:
• Regular charge: £1875/ $3000 / €2438
• List B Developing country charge*: £1434/ $1500 / €1242
• List A Developing country charge*: £0 /$0 / €0

*Visit our developing countries page (click here for a list of qualifying countries).

Please note that these charges are in addition to any page charges and color charges that might apply.

Orders from the UK will be subject to the current UK VAT charge. For orders from the rest of the European Union, OUP will assume that the service is provided for business purposes. Please provide a VAT number for yourself or your institution and ensure you account for your own local VAT correctly.


Authors will receive electronic access to their paper free of charge. Printed offprints may be purchased in multiples of 50. Rates are indicated on the order form which must be returned with the proofs.


We encourage individuals to serve as a mentor to new professionals interested in the review process for The Journals of Gerontology, Series B: Social Sciences. The current review form allows for this designation so that all invited reviews can be completed with a reviewer-in-training, if interested.

For additional information, please contact the Editorial Office at

Impact Factor: 3.213

5-Yr impact factor: 3.856

Editorial Boards

The Journals of Gerontology, Series B: Psychological Sciences

Bob G. Knight, PhD

The Journals of Gerontology, Series B: Social Sciences

Deborah S. Carr, PhD, Editor

For the Media

For Authors

Open access options for authors - visit Oxford Open

Open access options for authors - visit Oxford Open Oxford Open

RCUK Wellcome

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