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March 2011: The journal has changed its citation format.

All articles accepted after March 1, 2011 will be cited using the following format:

The Journals of Gerontology, Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, vv, xxx-xxx.

(Note specifically, it starts with “The”; there is a comma and not hyphen before Series; there is no B on the volume number; and the letters have been removed from the page numbers.)

Please note that articles being cited prior to March 1, 2011 should be cited using the format in which they were originally published. Contact the journal inbox with any questions.

Please note that the journal now encourages authors to complete their copyright license to publish forms online!

The Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences is a bimonthly journal of The Gerontological Society of America that publishes research on aging from the fields of anthropology, demography, economics, epidemiology, geography, health services, political science, public health, social history, social work, and sociology. The Journal publishes five types of contributions (see item 4 below). The Journal uses a web-based submission and review system.

On this page:

Correspondence (Editorial)
Review of Manuscripts
Types of Articles
Manuscript Structure
Title Page
Title Page with Author Information and Acknowledgements
Figures and Illustrations
Supplementary Data
Language Editing
Advance Access
Copyright and License
Permission to Reproduce Figures and Extracts
Open Access Option for Authors


Please read these instructions carefully and follow them strictly to ensure that the review and publication of your paper is as efficient and quick as possible. The Editors reserve the right to return manuscripts that are not prepared in accordance with these instructions.

All material to be considered for publication in The Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences should be submitted in electronic form via the journal's online submission system. Once you have prepared your manuscript according to the instructions below, instructions on how to submit your manuscript online can be found by clicking here. Authors will set up an account through the Web site which will be used to upload files. Authors will also be able to log on to the Web site and check on the status of submissions.

Submission of a manuscript to The Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences implies that it has not been published and is not under consideration elsewhere. All authors must have participated sufficiently in the conception and design of the work, and the analysis of the data, as well as the writing of the manuscript to take public responsibility for it. They must also have approved the manuscript for submission. Any affiliations with or involvement in any organization or entity with a financial interest in the subject matter or materials presented in the manuscript must be declared. All authors must agree to produce the data on which the manuscript is based for examination by the Editor or his assignees upon request in order to document procedures, clarify controversies, or verify results.

Oxford Journals, publisher of The Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), and the journal strives to adhere to the COPE code of conduct and guidelines. For further information, see


Deborah S. Carr, PhD, Editor, Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, Department of Sociology and Institute for Health, Health Care Policy & Aging Research, Rutgers University, 112 Paterson Street,
New Brunswick, NJ 08901. Email:


The Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences employs double-anonymous peer review to ensure an impartial evaluation. Manuscript files must be uploaded to the Web site with all identifying information removed, including author identification on the title page and self references in the body of the text. If the manuscript is accepted for publication, the corresponding author will be required to submit a final version of the accepted paper with the identifying information included.


a. Original Research Reports. Manuscripts reporting original research should not exceed 6,000 words. Typical length is 5,000 words of text and no more than 10 pages of references, tables, and figures.

b. Brief Reports. These manuscripts also report original research, but should not exceed 3,000 words, typically 2,500 words of text and no more than 3 pages of references, tables, and figures.

c. Review Articles. The goal is an integrative presentation of findings on a cutting-edge topic; these may be solicited by the Editor. Manuscript is the same as a.

d. Theoretical or Methodological Articles. Theoretical papers must include an integration and critical analysis of existing views in a specific area as well as proposed resolution(s) of controversial positions. Methodological contributions should be supported with examples based upon empirical data if possible. Manuscript length is the same as a.

e. Commentary or Letters to the Editor. These are used to briefly clarify the interpretation of results or conclusions from articles in the Journal.


Manuscripts should be prepared according to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.), obtainable from APA, 750 First Street, N.E., Washington, DC 20002-4242,


Please prepare your manuscript text using a word-processing package (save in .doc or .rtf format). Do not use PDF. Manuscripts should be in an editable format. Manuscripts should be double-spaced. Please number each page. We recommend that authors spell-check all files before submission.

Authors should submit a single file containing the complete manuscript (i.e., anonymous title page, abstract, text, figures and tables), as this makes the reviewing process easier for Editors and referees. Please include the tables and figures at the end of the manuscript, after references, and do not embed them within the text. This applies to the original version of the manuscript and any revised versions. Due to figure file sizes, you may have to submit separate files for figures. Please use short, simple filenames when saving all your documents, and avoid special characters, punctuation marks, symbols (such as &), and spaces. If you are a Macintosh user, you must also type the extension at the end of the file name you choose (.doc, .rtf, .jpg, .gif, .tif, .xls, .eps, .ppt, .mov or .qt).

Other helpful hints are: (i) use the TAB key once for paragraph indents; (ii) where possible use Times New Roman for the text font and Symbol for any Greek and special characters; (iii) use the word processing formatting features to indicate Bold, Italic, Greek, Maths, Superscript and Subscript characters; (iv) please avoid using underline: for cases use italic; for emphasis use bold; (v) clearly identify unusual symbols and Greek letters; (vi) differentiate between the letter O and zero, and the letters I and l and the number 1.


The anonymous title page should include the title of the manuscript and word counts for the text and references. A suggested running headline, not to exceed 40 letters and spaces, should be placed at the foot of the title page.


On the page immediately following the title page, include a structured abstract of not more than 200 words, double spaced. It should contain four sections: Objectives, Methods, Results, and Discussion. Please provide 3 to 6 key terms.


The manuscript text is usually divided into sections with the headings: Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion. Articles may need subheadings within some sections to clarify content. Do not use footnotes or endnotes. Do not use appendices (see Supplementary Data). For citation format, see the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA), 6th ed.

Nonstandard abbreviations should be defined at the first occurrence and introduced only when used multiple times. Authors should not use abbreviations in headings. Ensure that the use of abbreviations is clear and that each one is definedin the text at its first mention only.


Details of all funding sources for the work in question should be given in a separate section entitled 'Funding'.

The following rules should be followed:

  • The sentence should begin: ‘This work was supported by …’
  • The full official funding agency name should be given, i.e. ‘the National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health’ or simply 'National Institutes of Health' not ‘NCI' (one of the 27 subinstitutions) or 'NCI at NIH' (full RIN-approved list of UK funding agencies)
  • Grant numbers should be complete and accurate and provided in parentheses as follows: ‘(grant number ABX CDXXXXXX)'
  • Multiple grant numbers should be separated by a comma as follows: ‘(grant numbers ABX CDXXXXXX, EFX GHXXXXXX)’
  • Agencies should be separated by a semi-colon (plus ‘and’ before the last funding agency)
  • Where individuals need to be specified for certain sources of funding the following text should be added after the relevant agency or grant number 'to [author initials]'.

An example is given here: ‘This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health (P50 CA098252 and CA118790 to R.B.S.R.); and the Alcohol & Education Research Council (HFY GR667789).’


A separate file, not merged into the manuscript file, should include the manuscript title, author names and affiliations, and acknowledgments, including source of research support. Author contributions to the manuscript should be indicated. For example: A.B. Cox planned the study, supervised the data analysis, and wrote the paper. D.E. Furr performed all statistical analyses and contributed to revising the paper. G.H. Irwin and J.K. Lyon helped plan the study, including instrumentation, and revise the manuscript. Please indicate where correspondence should be addressed; list e-mail address after the zip code. This document will not be sent to reviewers, but will remain with the online submission.


Include only references cited in the text; do not include references to private communications. Consult the APA Publication Manual, 6th ed., for correct form. There should be no more than 50 references. The reference list should be double spaced and arranged alphabetically by author’s surname; do not number.

Please add Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) to the reference section. One way to locate the DOIs is to use This is a free service by which one submits a formatted reference list and it returns the DOIs for the cited articles. After creating an account, go to Simple Text Query in the Technical Resources options.


Each table should be double spaced on a separate page. Number tables consecutively and supply a brief title at the top for each. Footnotes to a table are typed immediately below the table. The reference marks are superscript lowercase letters (a,b,c . . .) with the footnotes arranged alphabetically by their superscripts. Asterisks are used only for indicating probability levels of tests of significance. Colored text and shading should not be used. Indicate in the text the preferred placement for each table by noting [Table 1 about here]. Provide a test statistic and/or measure of goodness-of-fit for each multivariate equation (e.g., R2, likelihood ratio χ2).


Please upload your figures separately as images (.jpg, .tif, .gif or. eps) set at 1200 d.p.i. for line drawings and 300 d.p.i. for colour and half-tone artwork. Please note that all labels used in figures should be in upper case in the figure and the caption. Captions for figures should be typed double spaced on a separate page and include numbers corresponding to the proper figure. The Journal reserves the right to reduce the size of illustrative material.

For useful information on preparing your figures for publication, go to Figures will not be relettered by the publisher.

Please contact the production editor for information about color.


Supporting material that is not essential for inclusion in the full text of the manuscript, but would nevertheless benefit the reader, can be made available by the publisher as online-only content, linked to the online manuscript. The material should not be essential to understanding the conclusions of the paper, but should contain data that is additional or complementary and directly relevant to the article content. Such information might include more detailed methods, extended data sets/data analysis, or additional figures.

It is standard practice for appendices to be made available online-only as supplementary data. All text and figures must be provided in suitable electronic formats. All material to be considered as supplementary data must be submitted at the same time as the main manuscript for peer review. Supplementary material cannot be altered or replaced after the paper has been accepted for publication, and will not be edited. Please indicate clearly all material intended as supplementary data upon submission. Also ensure that the supplementary data is referred to in the main manuscript where necessary, for example as '(see Supplementary data)' or '(see Supplementary Figure 1)'.


Authors are sent page proofs by email. These should be checked immediately and corrections, as well as answers to any queries, returned to the publishers as an annotated PDF via email or fax within two working days (further details are supplied with the proof). It is the author's responsibility to check proofs thoroughly.


Particularly if English is not your first language, before submitting your manuscript you may wish to have it edited for correct usage of American English. This is not a mandatory step, but may help to ensure that the academic content of your paper is fully understood by journal editors and reviewers. Language editing does not guarantee that your manuscript will be accepted for publication. If you would like information about one such service please click here. There are other specialist language editing companies that offer similar services and you can also use any of these. Authors are liable for all costs associated with such services.


OUP offers pre-submission language editing through Oxford Language Editing, a service for researchers all over the world. Language editing, particularly if English is not your first language, can be used to ensure that the academic content of your paper is fully understood by the journal editors and reviewers. Visit to find out more about the freelance editors available and the different services offered. Please note that edited manuscripts will still need to undergo peer-review by the journal.


Advance Access articles are published online soon after they have been accepted for publication, in advance of their appearance in a printed journal. Appearance in Advance Access constitutes official publication, and the Advance Access version can be cited by a unique DOI (Digital Object Identifier). When an article appears in an issue, it is removed from the Advance Access page.

Articles posted for Advance Access have been copyedited and typeset and any corrections included. This is before they are paginated for inclusion in a specific issue of the Journal. Once an article appears in an issue, both versions of the paper continue to be accessible and citable.


It is a condition of publication for all Oxford Journals that authors grant an exclusive license to Oxford University Press or the sponsoring Society. This ensures that requests from third parties to reproduce articles are handled efficiently and consistently and will also allow the article to be as widely disseminated as possible. No article will be published unless the signed online license has been received at Oxford Journals. As part of the license agreement, Authors may use their own material in other publications provided that the Journal is acknowledged as the original place of publication and Oxford University Press as the Publisher. As the Author(s), copyright of the Article remains yours (or your employer’s if your employer claims copyright in your work).

Upon receipt of accepted manuscripts at Oxford Journals authors will be invited to complete an online copyright license to publish form.

Please note that by submitting an article for publication you confirm that you are the corresponding/submitting author and that Oxford University Press ("OUP") may retain your email address for the purpose of communicating with you about the article. You agree to notify OUP immediately if your details change. If your article is accepted for publication OUP will contact you using the email address you have used in the registration process. Please note that OUP does not retain copies of rejected articles.

Information about the Creative Commons license can be found here.

Author self-archiving/Public Access Policy

For information about this journal's policy, please visit our Author Self-Archiving policy page.

Oxford Journals will deposit all NIH-funded articles in PubMed Central. See authors/repositories.html for details. Authors must ensure that manuscripts are clearly indicated as NIH-funded using the guidelines above.


Authors will receive electronic access to their paper free of charge. Printed offprints may be purchased in multiples of 50. Rates are indicated on the order form which must be returned with the proofs.


Permission to reproduce copyright material, for print and online publication in perpetuity, must be cleared and if necessary paid for by the author; this includes applications and payments to DACS, ARS and similar licensing agencies where appropriate. Evidence in writing that such permissions have been secured from the rights-holder must be made available to the editors. It is also the author's responsibility to include acknowledgements as stipulated by the particular institutions. Please note that obtaining copyright permission could take some time. Oxford Journals can offer information and documentation to assist authors in securing print and online permissions: please see the Guidelines for Authors section at Should you require copies of this then please contact the editorial office of the journal in question or else the Oxford Journals Rights department on

For a copyright prose work, it is recommended that permission is obtained for the use of extracts longer than 400 words; a series of extracts totalling more than 800 words, of which any one extract is more than 300 words; or an extract or series of extracts comprising one-quarter of the work or more. For poetry: an extract of more than 40 lines; series of extracts totalling more than 40 lines; an extract comprising one-quarter or more of a complete poem.


The Journals of Gerontology: Series B authors have the option to publish their paper under the Oxford Open initiative; whereby, for a charge, their paper will be made freely available online immediately upon publication. After your manuscript is accepted, the corresponding author will be required to accept a mandatory license to publish agreement. As part of the licensing process, you will be asked to indicate whether or not you wish to pay for open access. If you do not select the open access option, your paper will be published with standard subscription-based access and you will not be charged.

Oxford Open articles are published under Creative Commons licenses.

RCUK/Wellcome Trust funded authors publishing in The Journals of Gerontology: Series B can use the Creative Commons Attribution license (CC-BY) for their articles.

All other authors may use the following Creative Commons licenses:
•Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial license (CC-BY-NC)
•Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives license (CC-BY-NC-ND)

Please click here for more information about the Creative Commons licenses.

You can pay Open Access charges using our Author Services site. This will enable you to pay online with a credit/debit card, or request an invoice by email or post. The applicable open access charges vary according to which Creative Commons licence you select. The open access charges are as follows.

Charges for CC-BY
•Regular charge: £2125/ $3400 / €2763
•List B Developing country charge*: £1063/ $1700 / €1382
•List A Developing country charge*: £0 /$0 / €0

Charges for CC-BY-NC/CC-BY-NC-ND:
•Regular charge: £1875/ $3000 / €2438
•List B Developing country charge*: £1434/ $1500 / €1242
•List A Developing country charge*: £0 /$0 / €0

*Visit our developing countries page (click here for a list of qualifying countries).

Please note that these charges are in addition to any page charges and color charges that might apply.

Orders from the UK will be subject to the current UK VAT charge. For orders from the rest of the European Union, OUP will assume that the service is provided for business purposes. Please provide a VAT number for yourself or your institution and ensure you account for your own local VAT correctly.

Impact Factor: 2.852

5-Yr impact factor: 3.434

Editorial Boards

The Journals of Gerontology, Series B: Psychological Sciences

Bob G. Knight, PhD

The Journals of Gerontology, Series B: Social Sciences

Deborah S. Carr, PhD, Editor

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