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All manuscripts must be submitted online. Once you have prepared your manuscript according to the instructions below please visit the online submission web site here. Further technical guidance on submitting your manuscript online via ScholarOne is available here.


All submissions must be in the English language. Articles are accepted for publication on condition that they are contributed solely to the International Journal of Epidemiology. The editors cannot enter into correspondence about papers considered unsuitable for publication and their decision is final. Neither the editors nor the publishers accept responsibility for the views and statements of authors expressed in their contributions.

Please note that by submitting an article for publication you confirm that you are the corresponding/submitting author and that Oxford University Press ("OUP") may retain your email address for the purpose of communicating with you about the article. You agree to notify OUP immediately if your details change. If your article is accepted for publication OUP will contact you using the email address you have used in the registration process.

It is a condition of publication in the Journal that authors grant an exclusive licence to the International Epidemiological Association. This ensures that requests from third parties to reproduce articles are handled efficiently and consistently and will also allow the article to be as widely disseminated as possible. As part of the licence agreement, authors may use their own material in other publications provided that the Journal is acknowledged as the original place of publication and Oxford University Press as the Publisher.

Unfortunately the journal is not staffed to provide a pre-submission service.


Authorship Form: A scanned copy of the Authorship Form signed by the corresponding author must be submitted via the online manuscript submission system. Failure to submit the form will lead to delays in the processing of the manuscript.

Conflict of Interest Form: Conflict of Interest Forms must be submitted with the first revision of a paper. They must be signed by each of the authors, and the corresponding author must upload them via the manuscript submission system when submitting the first revision of a paper. Failure to do so will lead to delays in the processing of the manuscript. Conflict of Interest forms are not required when submitting a new manuscript for the first time.

License to Publish Form: The License to Publish Form is only required when a paper is accepted for publication. It can be filled in online, and a link to the form will be sent to authors at the relevant time.



Titles should be short and specific. Subtitles may be used to amplify the main title.


The affiliations of each author must be given. If an author's present affiliation is different from that under which the work was done, both should be given. The name of the corresponding author should be marked with an asterisk (*). The editorial office retains the right to limit the number of authors appearing on the title page.

Writing groups may wish to list the group name instead of an author list. If individual members of such a group wish to be credited with authorship on PubMed, a full list of the authors (clearly identifying the PIs and corresponding author) must be uploaded as a ‘support document (not for publication)’ during the online submission process.


The summary should be no more than 250 words and consist of four sections labelled Background, Methods, Results and Conclusions. They should briefly describe the problem addressed, how the study was performed, the salient results and what conclusions can be made from the results. Three to ten keywords should be added to the end of the Summary.


Please include a key messages box with the key messages of the paper in 3-5 succinct bullet points.


• The main document should be submitted as an editable word document (not as a pdf).

• Papers should not normally exceed 3000 words but review articles may be twice this length.

• Manuscripts should be double spaced with margins of 2.5cm.

• All pages should be numbered.

• Numbers followed by a unit should be written as figures, as should all numbers above nine. Figures should not be used to start a sentence and those between 999 and 9999 should not be separated by spaces or commas while those over 10 000 should have a space after the thousand.

• Per cent should be written as % throughout.

• Full points should not be used after initials or contractions: J Jones, FRCS, 17 g, dl, Dr, etc.

• All measures should be reported in SI units followed, in the text, by traditional units in parentheses. For general guidance on the International System of Units and useful conversion factors, see Conventional Units - International Units. There are two exceptions: blood pressure should be expressed in mm Hg and haemoglobin as g/dl.

• If the data are appropriate, age grouping should be mid-decade to mid-decade or in five-year age groups (e.g. 35-44 or 35-39, 40-44, etc, but not 20-29, 30-39 or other groupings.

• In the IJE we actively discourage the use of the term "statistically significant" or just "significant" and such statements in method sections as "findings at p<0.05 were considered significant". Where used, we ask authors to provide effect estimates with confidence intervals and exact P values, and to refrain from the use of the term "significant" in either the results or discussion section of their papers. Our justification of this position is given in the Sterne J, Davey-Smith G. "Sifting the evidence - What's wrong with significance tests?" BMJ 2001: 322:226-231. See also Wasserstein RL, Lazar NA. The ASA's statement on p-values: context, process, and purpose. The American Statistician 2016: DOI:10.1080/00031305.2016.1154108


The following rules should be followed:

• The sentence should begin: ‘This work was supported by …’
• The full official funding agency name should be given, i.e. ‘the National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health’ or simply 'National Institutes of Health' not ‘NCI' (one of the 27 subinstitutions) or 'NCI at NIH’ - see the full RIN-approved list of UK funding agencies for details
• Grant numbers should be complete and accurate and provided in brackets as follows: ‘[grant number ABX CDXXXXXX]’
• Multiple grant numbers should be separated by a comma as follows: ‘[grant numbers ABX CDXXXXXX, EFX GHXXXXXX]’
• Agencies should be separated by a semi-colon (plus ‘and’ before the last funding agency)
• Where individuals need to be specified for certain sources of funding the following text should be added after the relevant agency or grant number 'to [author initials]'.

An example is given here: ‘This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [P50 CA098252 and CA118790 to R.B.S.R.] and the Alcohol & Education Research Council [HFY GR667789].

Crossref Funding Data Registry:

In order to meet your funding requirements authors are required to name their funding sources, or state if there are none, during the submission process. For further information on this process or to find out more about the CHORUS initiative please click here.


• Footnotes are not permitted in the main body of papers (they may only be used in tables and figures). Instead, authors should provide a list of references.
• References in Vancouver Style should be listed in the order they appear in the text and numbered accordingly. These numbers should be inserted in the text in brackets whenever a reference is cited.
• The numbered list of references should appear at the end of the article and should consist of the surnames and initials of all authors when six or less (when seven or more list just three and add et al.), title of article, name of journal abbreviated according to Index Medicus style, year, volume, first and last page numbers
Example: Steck N, Junker C, Maessen M, Reisch T, Zwahlen M, Egger M. Suicide assisted by right-to-die associations: a population based cohort study. Int J Epidemiol 2014; 431:614-622.
• Titles of books should be followed by the place of publication, the publisher, and the year.
Example: McMichael AJ. Planetary Overload: Global Environmental Change and the Health of the Human Species. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

• 'Unpublished Observations', 'Personal Communications' and submitted manuscripts may be cited and should appear appropriately marked in the text, but not in the reference list. Manuscripts in press may be cited in the references and details added on proof if possible.


• Tables should be submitted in editable Word or Excel format (not pdf).
• Tables should be numbered consecutively in arabic numerals and should be kept separate from the text.
• Particular care should be taken to make tables self-explanatory with adequate headings and footnotes.
• The position of each table in the text should be indicated (Table 1 here)


• Figures should be submitted in editable image formats (such as jpg or tiff, not pdf).
• Illustrations should be numbered and given suitable legends.
• They should be kept separate from the text.
• As standard figures appear in black and white in print, and in colour online. There is no charge for this.
• Authors will be expected to pay if they want their figures reproduced in colour in the print version of the Journal (£350/figure).
• Please state your preferred option (i.e. agreement to pay £350/figure for print and online colour or preference for online-only colour with no charge) upon submission via the online submission system.
• Please ensure that the prepared electronic image files print at a legible size and are of a high quality for publication (600dpi for line drawings; 300dpi for colour and half-tone artwork).
• For useful information on preparing your figures for publication, please see


The use of acronyms should be kept to a minimum. Words to be abbreviated (acronyms) should be spelled out in full the first time they appear in the text with the abbreviations in brackets. Thereafter the abbreviation should be used.


As a general rule, material of this nature should be incorporated in the text but separate sections can be published after the main text.


• Supplementary material that is not essential for inclusion in the full text of the manuscript, but would nevertheless benefit the reader, can be made available by the publisher as online-only content, linked to the online manuscript.
• The material should not be essential to understanding the conclusions of the paper.
• Such information might include more detailed methods, extended data sets/data analysis, or additional figures (including colour).
• All text and figures must be provided in suitable electronic formats. Permitted formats: PDF (.pdf), MS Word (.doc), HTML (.html), RTF (.rtf), MS Excel (.xls), CSV, mp3, mpeg.
• Please provide short (2-4 word) titles for each individual file - these will be used to create links to the files from the index page.
• All material to be considered as Supplementary Data must be submitted at the same time as the main manuscript for peer review. It cannot be altered or replaced after the paper has been accepted for publication.
• Please ensure that the Supplementary Material is referred to in the main manuscript where necessary.


The correct preparation of statistical manuscripts is particularly important and the precise nature and position of each symbol must be clear. In general, distinction should be made between: • capitals and small letters; • ordinary and bold-faced letters; • certain greek letters and similar roman letters; • subscripts, superscripts and 'ordinary' symbols. Statistical symbols are automatically set in italics and need not be underlined except to prevent ambiguity, e.g. when an isolated letter, such as a, occurs in the text. Symbols should not be used to start a sentence.


Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses

The IJE encourages authors of systematic reviews or meta-analyses of randomised trials and other evaluation studies to follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. For meta-analyses of observational studies we encourage authors to follow the Meta-analysis Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines. The study protocol, if there is one, should be submitted as a supporting document, clearly labelled 'for reviewing purposes only'.

Observational Studies

For observational studies, including case control, cohort, and cross-sectional studies, the IJE encourages authors to follow the STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement. Where such studies include routinely collected health data the IJE encourages authors to follow the REporting of studies Conducted using Observational Routinely-collected health Data (RECORD) statement. Full details of all reporting guidelines are available via the EQUATOR web site (


All accepted manuscripts are subject to copy editing.


The corresponding author will receive a pdf proof of the article. Proof correction must not be used as an opportunity to revise the paper. Any essential changes should take up the same amount of space if possible. Alterations, other than corrections of printer's errors, are expensive and may be charged to authors. Corrections should be returned within in 3 days to guarantee inclusion.
It is particularly important to check reference and author lists at the proof stage, as this is the final opportunity to catch errors prior to publication. Any errors that are not identified at the proof stage are very difficult to correct subsequently, particularly in third-party databases, such as PubMed.
The Editors reserve the right to make minor grammatical and other changes at any stage before publication. These are sometimes necessary to make the paper conform to the general style of the Journal.


Cohort Profiles
The Journals Cohort Profile series is open to all cohort studies which have completed baseline data collection so that some results in addition to baseline descriptive statistics can be presented in the profile. It includes open and closed cohort and cohort consortia. Full instructions to authors can be found here

Cohort Profile Updates
Authors wishing to update Cohort Profiles already published in the IJE should click here

Data Resource Profiles
This series covers any dataset of use to epidemiologists that falls outside the rubric of a cohort study. Typical examples include the Human Mortality Database and the Indian National Family Health Survey Study. Large randomised controlled trials and clinical case series with long-term follow-up will also generally be considered data resources rather than cohorts. Full instructions to authors can be found here

IJE Software Application Profile (SAP)
The purpose of IJE’s Software Application Profile (SAP) Series is to present practical and current software applications for use by the epidemiological research community. Each profile should adequately describe the motivation and use of the software application, thus enabling the reader to ascertain whether the application is suitable for their research goals.

IJE will consider the following software applications: desktop applications, web browser-based applications or services, server or command line applications, and plugins.

The software must be non-trivial and require limited effort to install. Software must be freely available to non-commercial users, and must be made available for a full 3 years following publication. Web browser-based applications or services must not require user registration. Software should run under a variety of conditions and, if applicable, must be compatible with multiple operating systems or hardware architectures.

General Requirements

Word count of 1500 – 2000 words. Maximum of 2 display items (figures or tables).
Please avoid overly technical jargon within the abstract, introduction, example usage case, and discussion or conclusion.

Software Application Profile Format

Each profile is required to follow a similar format, using the following subheadings:

Title: Should include the name of the software application, and concisely describe its use.

Abstract: Maximum of 150 words. Concisely describe the motivation, implementation, and general features of the software application.

Availability: Briefly state availability of the software application, such as website URL, as well as software license.

Introduction: In addition to a concise introduction, please provide motivation for development of the software, as well as its context relative to previously existing software of similar use.

Implementation: Concisely describe how the software is designed and implemented, such as its main modules and how they interact as well as programming languages, application program interfaces, or software libraries, used.

Usage: An example usage case, showcasing a real-world scenario and substantial functionality should also be provided. If needed a display items can be used to accompany the example usage case.

Conclusion or Discussion: In addition to a general discussion or conclusions, discuss limitations or future development of the software application.

The Education Corner
The purpose of this series is to provide easily accessible concise updates and reviews of epidemiologic concepts and methods suitable for educational use. Advice to authors of papers for the Education Corner can be found here

Photo Essays
Photo essays usually include 10-15 photographs with 200-500 words of text on a topic that relates to health and well-being. The definition can be broad and essays that examine the wider political, social, and environmental determinants of health are welcome.
•Photos should be high resolution.
•Photos will be reproduced free of charge in colour in the online version, and in black & white in the print version of the Journal.
•Authors/photographers must be able to provide Oxford University Press with permission to reproduce all the images they use.
•Authors/photographers retain the right to reproduce the photographs included in their photo essays.
• Photo essays must be submitted via ScholarOne, the Journal’s online submission system as above.
•Please indicate in the cover letter if your submission is intended for a special series or competition.


Letters and responses to commentaries and other material in the Journal are encouraged. The lead authors of responses are responsible for contacting all authors of the original paper to ascertain whether they wish to be included in the reply. Letters and responses can be submitted via ScholarOne, the Journal’s online manuscript submission system.


IJE authors have the option to publish their paper under the Oxford Open initiative; whereby, for a charge, their paper will be made freely available online immediately upon publication. After your manuscript is accepted the corresponding author will be required to accept a mandatory licence to publish agreement. As part of the licensing process you will be asked to indicate whether or not you wish to pay for open access. If you do not select the open access option, your paper will be published with standard subscription-based access and you will not be charged.

Oxford Open articles are published under Creative Commons licences. RCUK/Wellcome Trust funded authors publishing in IJE can use the Creative Commons Attribution licence (CC-BY) for their articles.
All other authors may use the following Creative Commons licences:
• Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial licence (CC-BY-NC)
• Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives licence (CC-BY-NC-ND)
Please click here for more information about the Creative Commons licences.

You can pay Open Access charges using our Author Services site. This will enable you to pay online with a credit/debit card, or request an invoice by email or post. The applicable open access charges vary according to which Creative Commons licence you select. The open access charges are as follows.
Charges for CC-BY
• Regular charge: £2150/ $3400 / €2800
• List B Developing country charge*: £1075/ $1700 / €1400
• List A Developing country charge*: £0 /$0 / €0

Charges for CC-BY-NC/CC-BY-NC-ND:
• Regular charge: £1850/ $3000 / €2450
• List B Developing country charge*: £925/ $1500 / €1225
• List A Developing country charge*: £0 /$0 / €0

*Visit our developing countries page (click here for a list of qualifying countries).

Open access charges are in addition to colour charges that may apply.
Orders from the UK will be subject to the current UK VAT charge. For orders from the rest of the European Union, OUP will assume that the service is provided for business purposes. Please provide a VAT number for yourself or your institution, and ensure you account for your own local VAT correctly.


Offprints may be purchased using the Oxford Journals Author Services site. Orders from the UK will be subject to a 20% VAT charge. For orders from elsewhere in the EU you or your institution should account for VAT by way of a reverse charge. Please provide us with your or your institution’s VAT number.