Skip Navigation

Manuscript Preparation Instructions

Links to Sections
How to contact the Editorial Office
Language editing pre-submission
Article Types
Manuscript format and structure
Tables, text boxes and figures/illustrations
Declaration Of Author Contributions
Supplementary data
Journal style
Permission to reproduce figures and extracts
Copyright and licence
Open Access option for authors
Advance Access


Please read these instructions carefully and follow them closely to ensure that the review and publication of your paper is as efficient and quick as possible. The Editors reserve the right to return manuscripts that are not in accordance with these instructions.

All material to be considered for publication in International Health should be submitted in electronic form via the journal's online submission system.

Return to top of page.


To contact the editorial office, please email

Return to top of page.


If your first language is not English, you may wish to a language editing service before submitting your paper, to ensure its academic content is fully understood by journal editors and reviewers. For further information on this service, please click here. Several specialist language editing companies offer similar services and you can also use any of these. Please note that language editing does not guarantee that your manuscript will be accepted for publication, and that authors are liable for all costs associated with such services.

Return to top of page.


International Health publishes the following types of paper:

  • Editorials
  • Original Articles. These should be up to 3500 words in length with a 200 word abstract and 30 references.
  • Reviews. These should be up to 3500 words in length, with a 200 word abstract and 30-40 references.
  • Short Communications. These should be up to 800 words long, with 1 table or figure, an abstract of 100 words and 5 references.
  • Commentaries. These should be up to 1000 words, with an abstract of 100 words and 10 references.

Return to top of page.


Please prepare your typescript text using a word-processing package (save in .doc or .rtf format). Typescripts should be double-spaced. Please number each page.

It is recommended that authors spell-check all files before submission.

Save and upload the complete manuscript (i.e. title page, abstract, text, figures and tables) as a single file where appropriate*, as this makes the reviewing process easier for editors and referees. This applies to the original version of the manuscript and any revised versions.

*Figures and illustrations may need to be submitted as separate files due to file size constraints

Also, include the files for any supplementary material to be submitted with your manuscript.

Please use short, simple filenames when saving all your documents, and avoid special characters, punctuation marks, symbols (such as &), and spaces. Macintosh users must also type the extension at the end of the chosen file name (.doc, .rtf, .jpg, .gif, .tif, .xls, .pdf, .eps, .ppt, .mov or .qt).

Submitting figures: please be aware that the requirements for online submission and for reproduction in the journal are different:

(i) for online submission and peer review, please upload your figures either embedded in the word processing file or separately as low-resolution images (.jpg, .tif, .gif or. eps);

(ii) for reproduction in the journal, you will be required after acceptance to supply high-resolution .eps, .tif or .ppt files in vector graphics and/or editable formats. Minimum resolutions are 300 d.p.i. for colour or tone images, and 600 d.p.i. for line drawings. We advise that you create your high-resolution images first, as these can be easily converted into low-resolution images for online submission.

Title page

The title should be short, specific and informative. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.

Give the first name, initial(s), and surname of each author.
To ensure that the authors’ full surnames and forenames are tagged correctly, for accurate indexing online, it is important to check that:

(i) all names have the correct spelling and are in the correct order (first name, then family name); occasionally, the distinction between forenames and surnames can be ambiguous

(ii) initials are correct.

Below the names, list the authors’ affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done). Indicate all affiliations (department, institution, city with postcode, and country) with a lowercase superscript letter immediately after the author’s name and in front of the appropriate address. Indicate the corresponding author with an asterisk, and provide his or her telephone and fax numbers and email address.

If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a ‘Present address’ may be indicated as a footnote to that author’s name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.

Inclusion of a footnote stating that ‘The authors wish it to be known that, in their opinion, the first x authors should be regarded as joint First Authors’ is permitted if the appropriate box is checked on the submission website.

An example of how the affiliations should be presented is shown below:

Name Onea, Name Twob,1, Name Threec,*

aAffiliation one; bAffiliation two; cAffiliation three

*Corresponding author: Tel: +00 0 000 0000; Fax: +00 0 000 0000 ; E-mail: xxx@yyy.zz
1Present address: xxxxx

Any deletions or additions to the author list after acceptance of the paper must be submitted in writing, signed by all authors, to the Editorial Office.


The second page of the manuscript should contain the Abstract, which will be printed at the beginning of the paper.

The Abstract of a published paper needs to encourage the reader to read or obtain the full text. Make sure that your Abstract will be comprehensible to reviewers and readers before they have read the paper. Use it to describe accurately and succinctly the content, scope and importance of the work reported. Avoid reference citations, and avoid non-standard or uncommon abbreviations unless essential, in which case define them at first mention.

A Structured Abstract (Background; Methods; Results; Conclusions) is required for all Full Length Original Articles and Short Communications. For Commentaries and Reviews, the Abstract should not be structured.

Word limit: the Abstract must not exceed 200 words for Original Article and Review submissions or 100 words for Short Communications and Commentaries.

Accession Numbers

If you are reporting new sequence accession numbers (DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank), these should be listed below the abstract as well as being cited within the text.


Immediately after the Abstract, please list up to six keywords.

Authors are recommended to use keywords from the US National Library of Medicine's Medical Subject List, wherever possible. Choosing keywords in this manner may help increase citation of your paper by making it more readily searchable.

The suitability of keywords can be checked on the NLM MeSH Browser at

Main text

Start the main text on a new page.

Commentaries should not have section categories, but Original Articles, Short Communications and Reviews should normally have standard section headings, as follows.

Introduction. State here the key objectives of the work reported, and provide some background.

Materials and methods. Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced. If a review, please provide details of the literature search carried out.

Results. Results should be precisely presented once, in the text, tables or figures, without discussion of their significance. When results are presented in tables or figures, the text should comment only on the important points.

This should explore the significance of the results, not repeat them. Highlight any limitations of the study in a separate paragraph.

For Short Communications, the Results and Discussion sections can be combined.

Conclusions. The main conclusions of the study should be presented in a short concluding paragraph at the end of the Discussion section.

Authors’ statements

These should be include in the following order: Authors’ disclaimers (if required); Authors’ contributions; Acknowledgements (if required); Funding; Competing interests; Ethical approval.

Authors’ contributions

Please use the following format (use initials to refer to each author): CJ and HGM conceived the study; BJA and CJ designed the study protocol; BJA and HGM carried out the clinical assessment; CJ and FT carried out the immunoassays and cytokine determination, and analysis and interpretation of these data. BJA and CJ drafted the manuscript; BJA HGM and FT critically revised the manuscript for intellectual content. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. BJA and CJ are guarantors of the paper.

Further information can be found on our journal policies page.


Acknowledgements and details of non-financial support must be included at the end of the text, after ‘Authors’ Contributions’, and not in footnotes. Personal acknowledgements should precede those of institutions or agencies. Authors should obtain permission to acknowledge from all those named in the Acknowledgements and forward details of this permission to the editorial office at the time of submission.

Please note that acknowledgement of funding bodies and declarations regarding competing interests should be given in separate Funding and Competing Interests sections, respectively.


Please give details of all funding sources for the work in question, and note the following rules:

  • The sentence should begin: ‘This work was supported by …’
  • The full official funding agency name should be given, i.e. ‘the National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health’ or simply 'National Institutes of Health' not ‘NCI' (one of the 27 subinstitutions) or 'NCI at NIH’ (full RIN-approved list of UK funding agencies)
  • Grant numbers should be complete and accurate and provided in brackets as follows: ‘[grant number ABX CDXXXXXX]’
  • Multiple grant numbers should be separated by a comma as follows: ‘[grant numbers ABX CDXXXXXX, EFX GHXXXXXX]’
  • Agencies should be separated by a semi-colon (plus ‘and’ before the last funding agency)
  • Where individuals need to be specified for certain sources of funding the following text should be added after the relevant agency or grant number 'to [author initials]'.

An example is given here: ‘This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [P50 CA098252 and CA118790 to R.B.S.R.] and the Alcohol & Education Research Council [HFY GR667789].

Competing interests

When considering whether you should declare a competing interest or connection please consider the competing interest test: Is there any arrangement that would embarrass you or any of your co-authors if it was to emerge after publication and you had not declared it?

Further information can be found on our journal policies page.

Ethical approval

Further information can be found on our journal policies page.

If you have no declaration to make for funding, competing interests and ethical approval please insert the following statements:

Funding: None.
Competing interests: None declared.
Ethical approval: Not required.


Full references should be provided in accordance with the style of International Health and the Oxford SCIMED referencing style, following the instructions and examples below.

References should be numbered in order of appearance in the text (indicated with superscript numbers) and must be listed numerically in the reference list. All references present in the reference list must be cited in the text.

Journal titles and author initials should be properly abbreviated and punctuated. Page numbers should be truncated, i.e. 345-9 and not 345-349.

Et al. is used; for references with more than four authors, list the first three followed by et al.

The citation of journals, books, multi-author books and articles published online should conform to the following examples:

  1. Kennedy T, Jones R. Effect of obesity on esophageal transit. Am J Surg 1985;149:177–81.
  2. Long HC, Blatt MA, Higgins MC et al. Medical Decision Making. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann; 1997.
  3. Manners T, Jones R, Riley M. Relationship of overweight to haitus hernia and reflux oesophagitis. In: Newman W (editor). The Obesity Conundrum. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science, 1997;352–74.
  4. Public Health Laboratory Service. Antimicrobial Resistance in 2000: England and Wales. [accessed 7 January 2004].

Personal communications (J. Jones, personal communication) must be authorised in writing by those involved, and unpublished data should be cited in the text as (unpublished data). References to manuscripts submitted, but not yet accepted, should be cited in the text as (B. Jones and L. Smith, manuscript submitted) and should not be included in the list of references. Citations of submitted manuscripts should include all authors involved (use et al. if more than four). If referring to a website - in general terms, cite the web URL in parenthesis at the appropriate mention in the text.

Please note that Wikipedia cannot be cited as a reference.


Place any

  • Tables, each on a separate page
  • Text boxes, each on a separate page
  • Figure captions, listed together on a separate page
  • Figures/illustrations, each on a separate page

in the above order at the end of the manuscript. Each item must be cited in the text at the appropriate point(s).


Number tables consecutively using Arabic numerals, and provide each with an explanatory title, so that it can be understood without reference to the text. Avoid overcrowded tables and keep words to a minimum. Give the units in which results are expressed in parentheses at the top of each column or start of each row; do not repeat units in each entry. Avoid blank cells by using ND, NA, etc. and define in a footnote below the table body. If p values in a table are not significant, replace numbers with NS (define NS in footnote). Define any non-standard abbreviations in a footnote, even if they are defined in the text. Indicate any explanatory footnotes with lowercase superscript letters, as in the example below:

CFR: case fatality rate; DOT: directly observed treatment; TST: tuberculin skin test.
a Per 1-year increase.
b p-value <0.1.

The format of tables should be in keeping with that normally used by the journal; in particular, do not use vertical lines, coloured text or shading. Check carefully that the data given in tables are correct.

Please note that tables must be provided in an editable format (such as .doc, .xls) and not in picture format (such as .tif).

Text boxes

Text boxes are a useful way of presenting information such as formulae, questionnaires, literature search criteria or quotes. Cite each box within the text, and number them consecutively in order of appearance. Provide each with an explanatory title.

Figures and illustrations

Number figures consecutively with Arabic numerals, in order of their citation within the text; use A, B, etc. to denote different panels.

Each figure must have a complete caption that clearly explains all elements of the figure, including different panels and abbreviations.

The journal reserves the right to reduce the size of illustrative material. Wherever possible, photographs should fit within the print area (180mm wide) or within a column width (90mm wide).

Figures will not be relettered by the publishers. When creating figures, please make sure any embedded text is large enough to read. Any characters not easily readable in the submitted figure will most likely be illegible in the final version.

Any photomicrographs, electron micrographs or radiographs must be of high quality; add arrows to indicate points of interest. Photomicrographs should provide details of staining technique and a scale bar. Patients shown in photographs must have their identity concealed or must have given their written consent to publication.

Certain image formats such as .jpg and .gif do not have high resolutions, so you may elect to save your figures and insert them as .tif instead. Please see the notes on file submission at the start of this guidance.

General points:

  • Make sure you use uniform lettering, symbols and sizing in your original artwork
  • Arial font should be used in figures
  • The axes of graphs must be clearly labelled and should be carefully chosen so as to occupy the space available to the best advantage
  • Line drawings should be as simple as possible: do not use overcomplicated figure styles, e.g. three-dimensional graphs (when there are only two data sets), fine lines, backgrounds behind graphs, gradations of stippling and unusual symbols.
  • Define any abbreviations in the figure legend, even if they are defined in the main text.

For useful information on preparing your figures for publication, go to

Colour illustrations

Authors can choose to have their figures published in colour in print at a charge of £350/$600/€525 per figure.

Alternatively, International Health also offers free reproduction of colour figures in the online version (figures in the print version will appear in black and white). When submitting your manuscript, you will be asked if you require colour reproduction for the print journal and if so, to confirm the colour figure charge. If you require colour reproduction of figures in the print journal you will be asked to approve a cost when you receive the proofs of your paper. You will be asked to complete the payment process at the time of publication, and if required further information will be provided by the Production and Journals Customer Services departments. Figure captions must be suitably worded to apply to both the print and online versions of the article.

Return to top of page.



Supporting material that is not essential for inclusion in the full text of the manuscript, but would nevertheless benefit the reader, can be made available by the publisher as online-only content, linked to the online manuscript. The material should not be essential to understanding the conclusions of the paper, but should contain data that is additional or complementary and directly relevant to the article content. Such information might include more detailed methods, extended data sets/data analysis, or additional figures.

All material to be considered as supplementary data must be submitted at the same time as the main manuscript for peer review. It cannot be altered or replaced after the paper has been accepted for publication, and will not be edited.

All text and figures must be provided in suitable electronic formats. Please indicate clearly all material intended as supplementary data upon submission and name the files e.g. ‘Supplementary Figure 1’, ‘Supplementary Data’, etc. Also ensure that the supplementary data is referred to in the main manuscript where necessary, for example as ‘(see Supplementary data)’ or ‘(see Supplementary Figure 1)’.

Return to top of page.


Key points of this journal’s style guide are shown below. When preparing your manuscript, please format according to these instructions.

DNA sequences and GenBank accession numbers. Gene accession numbers refer to genes or DNA sequences about which further information can be found in the databases at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) at the US National Library of Medicine.

Authors wishing to enable other scientists to use the accession numbers cited in their papers via links to these sources should type this information in the manner set out below. Letters in the accession number should always be capitalised whenever cited in the text (see example below). Authors are encouraged to check accession numbers very carefully.

Example: '(GenBank accession nos. AI631510, AI631511, AI632198 and BF223228), a B-cell tumor from a chronic lymphatic leukemia (GenBank accession no. BE675048), and a T-cell lymphoma (GenBank accession no. AA361117)'.

If you are reporting new sequence accession numbers (DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank), these should be listed below the abstract as well as being cited within the text.

Headings should follow the journal style.

Abbreviations. Define non-standard abbreviations at their first occurrence in both the Abstract and the main text, figures and tables. Ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article. Avoid using abbreviations in headings.

Mathematical formulae. Present simple formulae in the line of normal text where possible. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line, e.g. Xp/Ym.

Mathematical formulae. Present simple formulae in the line of normal text where possible. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line, e.g. Xp/Ym.

Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp.

Nomenclature and units. Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI). If other quantities are mentioned, give their equivalent in SI. You are urged to consult IUB: Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents for further information.

Organisms should be referred to by their scientific names according to the Linnaean binomial system. Generic names should be given in full and in italics when first used and subsequently abbreviated to a single letter in italics followed by a full stop and a space, e.g. Plasmodium vivax and P. vivax. The full generic name should always be used at the beginning of a sentence or in a heading or subheading.

Use one letter for genus abbreviation except when a two-letter abbreviation is needed to avoid confusion, e.g. when Aedes and Anopheles, are mentioned in same paper. However, when several unusual genera are being discussed with only a few references to each spread throughout the manuscript, it is better to use the whole generic name.

Numbers. Numbers one to nine are spelt out unless they are measurements, e.g. 5 mg. Numbers (and units if appropriate) are spelt out if they begin a sentence, e.g. Five microlitres. Large numbers should be set without commas, i.e. 10 000 not 10,000. Decimal points must be indicated by a full point on the line (not commas). Decimal fractions should always be preceded by a zero, e.g. 0.05.

When reporting percentages in the text, include both numerator and denominator. When the sample size is greater than 100, report percentages to one decimal place. When the sample size is 100 or less, report percentages in whole numbers.

Statistical methods should be fully referenced and details of any statistical software packages used must be given, e.g. Epi Info (CDC, Atlanta, GA, USA).

p-values. p must always be expressed as equal to, less than, less than or equal to, much less than, greater than, or much greater than that number (p=0.0001; p<0.01, p≤0.01, p<<0.0l; p>0.01, p>>0.01). Exact values of p should be given to two decimal places, but for smaller values use p<0.001.

Drug names. Generic names of drugs should be used. The proprietary name may be used together with the generic name where it is first mentioned in the text and details of the manufacturer should be given (name, city, state, country).

Return to top of page.


International Health no longer prints correspondence. Instead, readers have the opportunity to respond to any of the articles in the journal online in the form of an E-letter. This offers an opportunity for feedback, debate and the promotion of ideas for future articles. Readers should note that the publication of an E-letter does not imply approval or recommendation of its contents by OUP or the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

To submit a comment responding to a particular article: Click on the link 'Responses: Submit a response' in the box on the right hand side of the article. To read comments responding to a particular article: Click on the link 'Responses: Read responses' in the box on the right hand side of the article.

Your submission must be accompanied by accurate and complete author details including a functioning email address as you may be required to respond to enquiries. Your name and institutional affiliation will be published with each E-letter. If you want your email address to appear on the website, include it in the body of the text of your E-letter.

All E-letters are eligible for publication in the paper version of International Health and all other International Health-related publications, in all cases in any present or future medium.

If patients could recognise themselves from your description please obtain their written consent to publication before sending your E-letter. You will be able to download the consent form from the submission page.

Your E-letters must be original and not infringe any third party's intellectual property rights.

You must declare any competing financial interests. You will be able to read our guidance notes on the submission page.

Once your E-letter has been published on the website or in the print version of the journal, you will not have the right to have it removed or edited. The Editor and Oxford University Press shall, however, have the right to remove any E-letter at their discretion.

Return to top of page.


Permission to reproduce copyright material, for print and online publication in perpetuity, must be cleared and if necessary paid for by the author; this includes applications and payments to DACS, ARS and similar licensing agencies where appropriate. Evidence in writing that such permissions have been secured from the rights-holder must be made available to the editors. It is also the author's responsibility to include acknowledgements as stipulated by the particular institutions. Please note that obtaining copyright permission could take some time. Oxford Journals can offer information and documentation to assist authors in securing print and online permissions: please see the Guidelines for Authors section at Should you require copies of this then please contact the editorial office of the journal in question or the Oxford Journals Rights department on

For a copyright prose work, it is recommended that permission is obtained for the use of extracts longer than 400 words; a series of extracts totalling more than 800 words, of which any one extract is more than 300 words; or an extract or series of extracts comprising one-quarter of the work or more.

Return to top of page.


It is a condition of publication for all Oxford Journals that authors either assign copyright or grant an exclusive licence to Oxford University Press or the sponsoring Society. This ensures that all of the rights needed for publication of the article are in place and any requests from third parties to reproduce content from the journals are handled efficiently and consistently by OUP, enabling the content to be as widely disseminated as possible. No article will be published unless the signed licence has been received at Oxford Journals. Upon receipt of accepted manuscripts at Oxford Journals authors will be invited to complete an online copyright licence to publish form, and the Publisher will provide further instruction at that point. Any queries about the licence form should be sent as soon as possible to Rights and Permissions so that any issues can be resolved quickly and to avoid any delay in publication.

As part of the terms of the licence agreement, Authors may use their own material in other publications written or edited by themselves provided that the journal is acknowledged as the original place of publication and Oxford University Press as the publisher. As the Author(s), copyright of the Article remains yours (or your employer’s if your employer claims copyright in your work). See here for full details of Oxford Journals' copyright policy and the rights retained by you/your institution under the terms of the licence. Please note that for any content published as part of the Oxford Open program, there is an extended range of rights retained by you as the Author. For more details, please go to: and further information is provided below.

Work submitted for publication must be original, previously unpublished, and not under consideration for publication elsewhere. If previously published figures, tables, or parts of text are to be included, the copyright-holder’s permission must have been obtained prior to submission. For more information on how to obtain permissions, please consult Rights and Permissions.

Return to top of page.


International Health authors have the option to publish their paper under the Oxford Open initiative; whereby, for a charge, their paper will be made freely available online immediately upon publication. After your manuscript is accepted the corresponding author will be required to accept a mandatory license to publish agreement. As part of the licensing process you will be asked to indicate whether or not you wish to pay for open access. If you do not select the open access option, your paper will be published with standard subscription-based access and you will not be charged.

Oxford Open articles are published under Creative Commons licences.

RCUK/Wellcome Trust funded authors publishing in International Health can use the Creative Commons Attribution licence (CC-BY) for their articles.

All other authors may use the following Creative Commons licence:
• Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial licence (CC-BY-NC)

Please click here for more information about the Creative Commons licences.

You can pay Open Access charges using our Author Services site. This will enable you to pay online with a credit/debit card, or request an invoice by email or post. The applicable open access charges vary according to which Creative Commons licence you select. The open access charges are as follows.

Charges for CC-BY
• Regular charge: £2000/ $3200 / €2600
• List B Developing country charge*: £1000/ $1600 / €1300
• List A Developing country charge*: £0 /$0 / €0

Charges for CC-BY-NC:
• Regular charge: £1750/ $2800 / €2275
• List B Developing country charge*: £875/ $1400 / €1138
• List A Developing country charge*: £0 /$0 / €0

*Visit our developing countries page (click here for a list of qualifying countries).

Please note that these charges are in addition to any colour charges that may apply.

Orders from the UK will be subject to the current UK VAT charge. For orders from the rest of the European Union, OUP will assume that the service is provided for business purposes. Please provide a VAT number for yourself or your institution, and ensure you account for your own local VAT correctly.

Return to top of page.


Authors are sent page proofs by email. These should be checked immediately and corrections, as well as answers to any queries, returned to the Editorial Office as an annotated PDF via email within 3 working days (further details are supplied with the proof). It is the author's responsibility to check proofs thoroughly.

Return to top of page.


The corresponding authors will receive electronic access to their paper free of charge which can be distributed to co-authors and colleagues. Printed offprints may be purchased in multiples of 50 or 100. You will receive a link from the Publisher to the online author services site to purchase offprints or copies of the issue in which your paper will be published in, and to see our prices.

Return to top of page.


Advance Access articles are published online soon after they have been accepted for publication, in advance of their appearance in a printed journal. Appearance in Advance Access constitutes official publication, and the Advance Access version can be cited by a unique DOI (Digital Object Identifier). When an article appears in an issue, it is removed from the Advance Access page.

Articles posted for Advance Access have been copyedited and typeset and any corrections included. This is before they are paginated for inclusion in a specific issue of the Journal. Once an article appears in an issue, both versions of the paper continue to be accessible and citable.

Return to top of page.