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Manuscript Preparation Instructions

Links to Sections
Manuscript preparation instructions
Submission
How to contact the Editorial Office
Language editing pre-submission
Article Types
Manuscript format and structure
Tables, text boxes and figures/illustrations
Supplementary data
Journal style
E-letters
Permission to reproduce figures and extracts
Copyright and licence
Open Access option for authors
Proofs
Offprints
Advance Access

MANUSCRIPT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS

International Health, an official journal of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, publishes original, peer-reviewed articles and reviews on all aspects of global health, including the social and economic aspects of communicable and non-communicable diseases, health systems research, policy and implementation, and the evaluation of disease control programmes and healthcare delivery solutions.

It aims to stimulate scientific and policy debate and provide a forum for analysis and opinion sharing for individuals and organisations engaged in all areas of global health.

SUBMISSION

Please read these instructions carefully and follow them closely to ensure that the review and publication of your paper is as efficient and quick as possible. The Editors reserve the right to return manuscripts that are not in accordance with these instructions.

All material to be considered for publication in International Health should be submitted in electronic form via the journal's online submission system.

Cover letter

Please include a covering letter along with the submission. The letter should explain the importance of the manuscript, putting the work described into context, and highlighting why it is a valuable addition to the scientific literature. It is your chance to explain to the editors and referees why the work presented is important and impactful, and to highlight anything particularly novel or unusual.

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HOW TO CONTACT THE EDITORIAL OFFICE

To contact the Editorial Office, please email journals@rstmh.org.

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LANGUAGE EDITING PRE-SUBMISSION

OUP offers pre-submission language editing through Oxford Language Editing, a service for researchers all over the world. Language editing, particularly if English is not your first language, can be used to ensure that the academic content of your paper is fully understood by the journal editors and reviewers. Visit oxfordlanguageediting.com to find out more about the freelance editors available and the different services offered. Please note that edited manuscripts will still need to undergo peer-review by the journal.

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ARTICLE TYPES

International Health publishes the following types of paper:

Reviews of different lengths are sometimes commissioned by the editorial team. Please contact the Editorial Office journals@rstmh.org if you are considering writing a review.

  • Editorials, which are commissioned by the Editorial team.
  • Original Articles are up to 3500 words (main text) in length with a structured abstract of up to 200 words and with up to 30 references. These provide accounts of original investigations in all aspects of tropical medicine including: Social and economic aspects of communicable and non-communicable diseases

    - Public health and social medicine
    - Healthcare delivery solutions
    - Evaluation of disease control programmes
    - Health systems research
    - Quantitative and qualitative studies
    - Economic aspects of health
    - Health policy and implementation
  • Short Communications should be up to 800 words long, with only one table or figure, a structured abstract of up to 100 words and 5 references. The Results and Discussion sections can be combined if appropriate.
  • Reviews should be up to 3500 words in length, with an unstructured abstract of up to 200 words and up to 60 references. Appropriate and relevant display items (text boxes, tables and figures) can also be included. Reviews give an authoritative account of an aspect of tropical medicine, but do not recapitulate material found in postgraduate textbooks. Highlighting these reviews provides readers with an insight into topics of current interest and widens the scope of the Journal bringing to the attention of readers emerging diseases and other developing aspects of global health.

    A systematic review, as defined by The Cochrane Collaboration, is a review of a clearly formulated question that uses explicit, systematic methods to identify, select and critically appraise relevant research, and to collect and analyse data from the studies that are included in the review. These reviews differ substantially from narrative-based reviews or synthesis articles. Statistical methods (meta-analysis) may or may not be used to analyse and summarise the results of the included studies. A systematic review should include a Methods section stating clearly the sources (databases, journal or book reference lists, etc) of the material covered and the criteria used to include or exclude studies.
  • Commentaries should be up to 1000 words, with an unstructured abstract of up to 100 words and 10 references. These set in context and illustrate the significance of articles published in International Health and are usually written as a result of a specific invitation. The Editor may invite commentaries on other topics that highlight developments in global health; for example commentaries can:

    - highlight and set in context a recent discovery
    - critically appraise established information and ideas
    - illustrate how established information and ideas can be relevant in a new context
    - show how established policy in global health may have unintended consequences.

    If you are interested in writing a commentary please contact the Editorial Office journals@rstmh.org to discuss your idea with the editorial team.

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MANUSCRIPT FORMAT AND STRUCTURE

Please prepare your typescript text using a word-processing package (save in .doc format).
Save and upload the complete text of the manuscript (i.e. title page, abstract, text, reference list and figure legends) as a single file. Tables and figures should be submitted as separate files (with appropriate file names), tables in Word or Excel and figures in an appropriate file format saved at a size and resolution suitable for print publication (see relevant section on submitting figures below). Each single figure should be saved in a separate file. Where a figure is made up of several panels these can be submitted in a single file, but it must be of an appropriate file format and resolution.

Include the files for any supplementary material to be submitted with your manuscript.

Please use short, simple filenames when saving all your documents, and avoid special characters, punctuation marks, symbols (such as &), and spaces. Macintosh users must also type the extension at the end of the chosen file name (.doc, .rtf, .jpg, .gif, .tif, .xls, .pdf, .eps, .ppt, .mov or .qt).

Submitting figures: Each figure should have a title and a descriptive legend of a maximum of 200 words and must provide enough detail to allow the figure to stand alone. The description should indicate the interesting points of the figure. If a figure has been published elsewhere it is essential that you have permission to reproduce or adapt it for publication. It is the authors’ responsibility to obtain such permission from the copyright holder and copies of permission should be forwarded to the Editorial Office.
If figures include patients and the patients could recognise themselves please obtain their written consent to publication before submitting your manuscript. You will be able to download the consent form from the submission page.
Please be aware of the requirements for figure file formats and resolution. Figures submitted to the journal should be high-resolution .eps, .tif, PDF or .ppt files in vector graphics and/or editable formats. We also accept figures e.g. flowcharts in Word or Excel. Minimum resolutions are 300 d.p.i. for colour or tone images, and 600 d.p.i. for line drawings, saved at the size at which you would want it published in the print journal. Saving images in a high resolution at a small size means that resolution will be lost when they have to be enlarged.

Title page

The title should be short, specific and informative and include the type of study. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.

Authors and affiliations

Give the first name, initial(s) and surname of each author.
To ensure that the authors’ full surnames and forenames are tagged correctly, for accurate indexing online, it is important to check that:

(i) all names have the correct spelling and are in the correct order (first name, then family name); occasionally, the distinction between forenames and surnames can be ambiguous

(ii) initials are correct.

Below the names, list the authors’ affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done). Indicate all affiliations (department, institution, city with postcode and country) with a lowercase superscript letter immediately after the author’s name and in front of the appropriate address. Indicate the corresponding author with an asterisk, and provide his or her telephone and email address.

If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a ‘Present address’ may be indicated as a footnote to that author’s name. Superscript numerals are used for such footnotes. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main affiliation address.
Inclusion of a footnote stating that ‘The authors wish it to be known that, in their opinion, the first x authors should be regarded as joint First Authors’ is permitted if the appropriate box is checked on the submission website.

An example of how the affiliations should be presented is shown below:

Name Onea, Name Twob,1, Name Threec,*

aAffiliation one; bAffiliation two; cAffiliation three

*Corresponding author: Tel: +00 0 000 0000; E-mail: xxx@yyy.zz
1Present address: xxxxx
Any deletions or additions to the author list after acceptance of the paper must be submitted in writing, signed by all authors, to the Editorial Office.

Abstract

The second page of the manuscript should contain the Abstract, which will be printed at the beginning of the paper.

The Abstract of a published paper needs to encourage the reader to read or obtain the full text. It is also used by referees to decide whether they are willing to review. Make sure that your Abstract will be comprehensible to reviewers and readers before they have read the paper. Use it to describe accurately and succinctly the content, scope and importance of the work reported. Do no use reference citations. Avoid non-standard or uncommon abbreviations unless essential, in which case define them at first mention.

A structured abstract (background; methods; results; conclusions) is required for all Original Articles and Short Communications. For Commentaries and Reviews, the Abstract should not be structured.

Word limit: the Abstract must not exceed 200 words for Original Article and Review submissions or 100 words for Short Communications and Commentaries.

Accession Numbers

If you are reporting new sequence accession numbers (DDBJ/EMBL/Genbank), these should be listed below the abstract as well as being cited within the text.

Keywords

Immediately after the Abstract, please list up to six keywords. All keywords should be capitalised and in alphabetical order, separated by commas.

Authors are recommended to use keywords from the US National Library of Medicine's Medical Subject List, wherever possible. Choosing keywords in this manner may help increase citation of your paper by making it more discoverable.

The suitability of keywords can be checked on the NLM MeSH Browser at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/.

Main text

Start the main text on a new page.

Commentaries should not have section categories, but Original Articles, Short Communications and Systematic Reviews should normally have standard section headings, as follows.

Introduction. State here the key objectives of the work reported, and provide some background.

Materials and methods. Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced. If a review, please provide details of the literature search carried out.

Results. Results should be precisely presented once, in the text, tables or figures, without discussion of their significance. When results are presented in tables or figures, the text should comment only on the important points.

Discussion. This should explore the significance of the results, not repeat them. Highlight any limitations of the study in a separate paragraph and discuss in full.

For Short Communications, the Results and Discussion sections can be combined.

Conclusions. The main conclusions of the study should be presented in a short concluding paragraph at the end of the Discussion section.

Reviews other than systematic reviews do not need to include Materials and methods, Results and Discussion sections. They must, however, include Introduction and Conclusions sections and the rest of the manuscript should be separated by appropriate headings and subheadings where necessary. They should also include Review criteria, detailing the searches performed to identify papers included in the review and any selection criteria applied to them.

Authors’ statements

These should include in the following order: Authors’ disclaimers (if required); Authors’ contributions; Acknowledgements (if required); Funding; Competing interests; Ethical approval.

Authors’ contributions
All authors listed on the manuscript should have contributed significantly to the experimental design, its implementation, or analysis and interpretation of the data. All authors should have been involved in the writing of the manuscript at draft and any revision stages, and have read and approved the final version. Anyone who made major contributions to the writing of the manuscript should be listed as an author (e.g. ’ghost writing’ is prohibited by the Journal). Any other individuals who made less substantive contributions to the experiment or the writing of the manuscript should be listed in the acknowledgements section. The guarantors of the paper must be named. Please make sure that the Declaration of author contributions is signed by all authors when submitting.

Please use the following format (use initials to refer to each author): CJ and HGM conceived the study; BJA and CJ designed the study protocol; BJA and HGM carried out the clinical assessment; CJ and FT carried out the immunoassays and cytokine determination, and analysis and interpretation of these data. BJA and CJ drafted the manuscript; BJA HGM and FT critically revised the manuscript for intellectual content. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. BJA and CJ are guarantors of the paper.

Acknowledgements

Acknowledgements and details of non-financial support must be included at the end of the text, after ‘Authors’ Contributions’, and not in footnotes. Personal acknowledgements should precede those of institutions or agencies. Authors should obtain permission to acknowledge from all those named in the Acknowledgements and forward details of this permission to the editorial office at the time of submission.

Please note that acknowledgement of funding bodies and declarations regarding competing interests should be given in separate Funding and Competing Interests sections, respectively.
Funding
Please give details of all funding sources for the work in question, and note the following rules:

  • The sentence should begin: ‘This work was supported by …’
  • The full official funding agency name should be given, i.e. ‘the National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health’ or simply 'National Institutes of Health' not ‘NCI' (one of the 27 subinstitutions) or 'NCI at NIH’ (full RIN-approved list of UK funding agencies)
  • Grant numbers should be complete and accurate and provided in brackets as follows: ‘[grant number ABX CDXXXXXX]’
  • Multiple grant numbers should be separated by a comma as follows: ‘[grant numbers ABX CDXXXXXX, EFX GHXXXXXX]’
  • Agencies should be separated by a semi-colon (plus ‘and’ before the last funding agency)
  • Where individuals need to be specified for certain sources of funding the following text should be added after the relevant agency or grant number 'to [author initials]'.

An example is given here: ‘This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [P50 CA098252 and CA118790 to R.B.S.R.] and the Alcohol & Education Research Council [HFY GR667789].

Competing interests
At the point of submission, each author should reveal any financial interests or connections, direct or indirect, or other situations that might raise the question of bias in the work reported or the conclusions, implications or opinions stated – including pertinent commercial or other sources of funding for the individual author(s) or for the associated department(s) or organisation(s), personal relationships or direct academic competition. When considering whether you should declare a competing interest or connection please consider the competing interests test: Is there any arrangement that would embarrass you or any of your co-authors if it was to emerge after publication and you had not declared it?

As part of the online submission process, corresponding authors are required to confirm whether they or their co-authors have any competing interests to declare, and to provide details of these. If the Corresponding author is unable to confirm this information on behalf of all co-authors, please contact the Editorial Office. It is the Corresponding author’s responsibility to ensure that all authors adhere to this policy.

If the manuscript is published, competing interests information, including if none was declared, will be communicated in a statement in the published paper.

Ethical approval. Authors should observe high standards with respect to publication ethics as set out by the Commission on Publication Ethics (COPE) and International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). By submitting your manuscript to the Journal it is understood that it is an original manuscript, is unpublished work and is not under consideration elsewhere. Falsification or fabrication of data, plagiarism, including duplicate publication of the authors’ own work without proper citation, and misappropriation of the work are all unacceptable practices. Manuscripts submitted to the Journal may be checked for originality using anti-plagiarism software. Any cases of ethical misconduct are treated very seriously and will be dealt with in accordance with the COPE guidelines.

Authorship and 'Umbrella' groups
Many large collaborative studies are organised under a group name which represents all the participants. All articles must have at least one named individual as author. Authors who wish to acknowledge the umbrella group from which the data originate should first list the author(s) of the article and follow this with 'on behalf of the GROUP NAME'. If necessary, the names of the participants may be listed in the Acknowledgements section.

Animal experiments
When reporting animal experiments, authors should indicate whether the institution’s, national research council’s or any other law on the care and use of laboratory animals was followed.

Human subjects
When reporting on human subjects, authors should indicate whether the procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the Helsinki Declaration (1964, amended most recently in 2008) of the World Medical Association. Manuscripts should include a statement that the patient’s written consent was obtained and any information, including illustrations, should be as anonymised as far as possible. Authors should indicate that the design of the work has been approved by local ethical committees or that it conforms to standards currently applied in the country of origin. The name of the authorising body should be stated in the paper.

We encourage authors to use the following tools to ensure good practice in reporting their work:
• The CONSORT checklist of items to include when reporting randomised trials;
• The STARD checklist of items for reporting studies on diagnostic accuracy;
• The PRISMA checklist for systematic reviews and meta-analyses.

If you have no declaration to make for funding, competing interests and ethical approval please insert the following statements:
Funding: None.
Competing interests: None declared.
Ethical approval: Not required.

References

Full references should be provided in accordance with the style of International Health and the Oxford SCIMED referencing style, following the instructions and examples below.

References must be numbered in the list in the order in which they appear in the text using superscript numbers which are placed after punctuation marks and should not be in brackets or parentheses. All references present in the reference list must be cited in the text. Any references applicable only to display items (i.e. not cited in the main text) should be cited in the relevant table, box or figure legend and added to the end of the reference list.

Journal titles and author initials should be properly abbreviated and punctuated. Page numbers should be truncated, i.e. 345–9 and not 345–349.

Et al. is used; for references with more than four authors, list the first three followed by et al.

If a web address is given, please include the accessed date. See example 4 below.

The citation of journals, books, multi-author books and articles published online should conform to the following examples:

  1. Kennedy T, Jones R. Effect of obesity on esophageal transit. Am J Surg 1985;149:177–81.
  2. Long HC, Blatt MA, Higgins MC et al. Medical Decision Making. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann; 1997.
  3. Manners T, Jones R, Riley M. Relationship of overweight to haitus hernia and reflux oesophagitis. In: Newman W (editor). The Obesity Conundrum. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science, 1997;352–74.
  4. Public Health Laboratory Service. Antimicrobial Resistance in 2000: England and Wales. http://www.hpa.org.uk./infections/topics_az/antimicrobial_resistance/amr.pdf [accessed 7 January 2013].

Personal communications (J. Jones, personal communication) must be authorised in writing by those involved, and unpublished data should be cited in the text as (unpublished data). References to manuscripts submitted, but not yet accepted, should be cited in the text as (B. Jones and L. Smith, manuscript submitted) and should not be included in the list of references. Citations of submitted manuscripts should include all authors involved (use et al if more than four). If referring to a website, cite the web URL in parenthesis at the appropriate mention in the text.
Please note that Wikipedia cannot be cited as a reference.

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TABLES, TEXT BOXES AND FIGURES/ILLUSTRATIONS

Place any

  • Tables, each on a separate page
  • Text boxes, each on a separate page
  • Figure captions, listed together on a separate page
  • Figures/illustrations, each on a separate page

in the above order at the end of the manuscript. Each item must be cited in the text at the appropriate point(s).

Tables

All tables should be cited in the text and numbered according to the order they are cited. Each table must have an explanatory title, so that it can be understood without reference to the text. Tables must be prepared using Excel spreadsheets or the table function of Word i.e. they must be cell based (tabs and hard returns must not be used to separate columns and rows). Avoid overcrowded tables and keep words to a minimum. Shading should not be used in tables. Give the units in which results are expressed in parentheses at the top of each column or start of each row; do not repeat units in each entry. Avoid blank cells by using ND, NA, etc. and define in a footnote below the table body. If p-values in a table are not significant, replace numbers with NS (define NS in footnote). Define any non-standard abbreviations alphabetically in a footnote, even if they are defined in the text. Indicate any explanatory footnotes with lowercase superscript letters, as in the example below:

CFR: case fatality rate; DOT: directly observed treatment; TST: tuberculin skin test.
a Per 1-year increase.
b p-value <0.01.

Check carefully that the data given in tables are correct and that percentages add up to 100%.

Please note that tables must be provided in an editable format (such as .doc, .docx or .xls) and not in picture format (such as .tif).

Text boxes

Text boxes are a useful way of presenting information such as lists, formulae, questionnaires, literature search criteria or quotes. Cite each box within the text and number them consecutively in order of appearance. Provide each with an explanatory title.

Figures and illustrations

Number figures consecutively, in order of their citation within the text; use A, B, etc. to denote different panels.

Each figure must have a complete caption (figure legend) that clearly explains all elements of the figure, including different panels and abbreviations. Figure legends must not exceed 200 words.

The Journal reserves the right to reduce the size of illustrative material. Wherever possible, photographs should fit within the print area (180mm wide) or within a column width (90mm wide).

Figures cannot be edited or relettered by the Publishers or Editorial Office. When creating figures, please make sure any embedded text is large enough to read. Any characters not easily readable in the submitted figure will most likely be illegible in the final version.

Any photomicrographs, electron micrographs or radiographs must be of high quality; add arrows to indicate points of interest. Photomicrographs should provide details of staining technique and a scale bar. Patients shown in photographs must have their identity concealed or must have given their written consent to publication.

Certain image formats such as .jpg and .gif do not have high resolutions, so you may elect to save your figures and insert them as .tif instead. Please see the notes on file submission at the start of this guidance.

General points:

  • Make sure you use uniform lettering, symbols and sizing in your original artwork
  • Arial font should be used in figures
  • The axes of graphs must be clearly labelled and should be carefully chosen so as to occupy the space available to the best advantage
  • Line drawings should be as simple as possible: do not use overcomplicated figure styles, e.g. three-dimensional graphs (when there are only two data sets), fine lines, backgrounds behind graphs, gradations of stippling and unusual symbols.
  • Define any abbreviations in the figure legend, even if they are defined in the main text.

For useful information on preparing your figures for publication, go to http://cpc.cadmus.com/da.

Colour illustrations

Authors can choose to have their figures published in colour in print at a charge of £350/$600/€525 per figure.

Alternatively, International Health also offers free reproduction of colour figures in the online version (figures in the print version will appear in black and white). When submitting your manuscript, you will be asked if you require colour reproduction for the print journal and if so, to confirm the colour figure charge. If you require colour reproduction of figures in the print journal you will be asked to approve a cost when you receive the proofs of your paper. You will be asked to complete the payment process at the time of publication, and if required further information will be provided by the Production TRSTMH@oup.com and Journals Customer Services departments Jnls.Cust.Serv@oup.com Figure captions must be suitably worded to apply to both the print and online versions of the article.

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SUPPLEMENTARY DATA

Supporting material that is not essential for inclusion in the full text of the manuscript, but would nevertheless benefit the reader, can be made available by the Publisher as online-only content, linked to the online manuscript. The material should not be essential to understanding the conclusions of the paper, but should contain data that is additional or complementary and directly relevant to the article content. Such information might include more detailed methods, extended data sets/data analysis or additional figures.

All material to be considered as supplementary data must be submitted at the same time as the main manuscript for peer review. It cannot be altered or replaced after the paper has been accepted for publication, and will not be edited.

All text and figures must be provided in suitable electronic formats. Please indicate clearly all material intended as supplementary data upon submission and name the files e.g. ‘Supplementary Figure 1’, ‘Supplementary Data’, etc. Also ensure that the supplementary data is referred to in the main manuscript where necessary, for example as ‘(see Supplementary data)’ or ‘(see Supplementary Figure 1)’.

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JOURNAL STYLE

Key points of this journal’s style guide are shown below. When preparing your manuscript, please format according to these instructions.

DNA sequences and GenBank accession numbers. Gene accession numbers refer to genes or DNA sequences about which further information can be found in the databases at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) at the US National Library of Medicine.

Authors wishing to enable other scientists to use the accession numbers cited in their papers via links to these sources should type this information in the manner set out below. Letters in the accession number should always be capitalised whenever cited in the text (see example below). Authors are encouraged to check accession numbers very carefully.

Example: '(GenBank accession nos. AI631510, AI631511, AI632198 and BF223228), a B-cell tumor from a chronic lymphatic leukemia (GenBank accession no. BE675048), and a T-cell lymphoma (GenBank accession no. AA361117)'.

If you are reporting new sequence accession numbers (DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank), these should be listed below the abstract as well as being cited within the text.

Headings should follow the journal style.

Abbreviations. Define non-standard abbreviations at their first occurrence in both the Abstract and the main text, figures and tables. Ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article. Avoid using abbreviations in headings.

Mathematical formulae. Present simple formulae in the line of normal text where possible. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line, e.g. Xp/Ym.

Mathematical formulae. Present simple formulae in the line of normal text where possible. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line, e.g. Xp/Ym.

Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp.

Nomenclature and units. Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI). If other quantities are mentioned, give their equivalent in SI. You are urged to consult IUB: Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents http://www.chem.qmul.ac.uk/iupac/bibliog/white.html for further information.

Organisms should be referred to by their scientific names according to the Linnaean binomial system. Generic names should be given in full and in italics when first used and subsequently abbreviated to a single letter in italics followed by a full stop and a space, e.g. Plasmodium vivax and P. vivax. The full generic name should always be used at the beginning of a sentence or in a heading or subheading.

Use one letter for genus abbreviation except when a two-letter abbreviation is needed to avoid confusion, e.g. when Aedes and Anopheles, are mentioned in same paper. However, when several unusual genera are being discussed with only a few references to each spread throughout the manuscript, it is better to use the whole generic name.

Numbers. Numbers one to nine are spelt out unless they are measurements, e.g. 5 mg. Numbers (and units if appropriate) are spelt out if they begin a sentence, e.g. Five microlitres. Large numbers should be set without commas, i.e. 10 000 not 10,000. Decimal points must be indicated by a full point on the line (not commas). Decimal fractions should always be preceded by a zero, e.g. 0.05.

When reporting percentages in the text, include both numerator and denominator. When the sample size is greater than 100, report percentages to one decimal place. When the sample size is 100 or less, report percentages in whole numbers.

Statistical methods should be fully referenced and details of any statistical software packages used must be given, e.g. Epi Info (CDC, Atlanta, GA, USA).

p-values. p must always be expressed as equal to, less than, less than or equal to, much less than, greater than, or much greater than that number (p=0.0001; p<0.01, p≤0.01, p<<0.0l; p>0.01, p>>0.01). Exact values of p should be given to two decimal places, but for smaller values use p<0.001.

Drug names. Generic names of drugs should be used. The proprietary name may be used together with the generic name where it is first mentioned in the text and details of the manufacturer should be given (name, city, state, country).

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E-LETTERS

International Health no longer prints correspondence. Instead, readers have the opportunity to respond to any of the articles in the journal online in the form of an E-letter. This offers an opportunity for feedback, debate and the promotion of ideas for future articles. Readers should note that the publication of an E-letter does not imply approval or recommendation of its contents by OUP or the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

To submit a comment responding to a particular article: Click on the link 'Responses: Submit a response' in the box on the right hand side of the article. To read comments responding to a particular article: Click on the link 'Responses: Read responses' in the box on the right hand side of the article.

Your submission must be accompanied by accurate and complete author details including a functioning email address as you may be required to respond to enquiries. Your name and institutional affiliation will be published with each E-letter. If you want your email address to appear on the website, include it in the body of the text of your E-letter.

All E-letters are eligible for publication in the paper version of International Health and all other International Health-related publications, in all cases in any present or future medium.

If patients could recognise themselves from your description please obtain their written consent to publication before sending your E-letter. You will be able to download the consent form from the submission page.

Your E-letters must be original and not infringe any third party's intellectual property rights.

You must declare any competing financial interests. You will be able to read our guidance notes on the submission page.

Once your E-letter has been published on the website or in the print version of the journal, you will not have the right to have it removed or edited. The Editor and Oxford University Press shall, however, have the right to remove any E-letter at their discretion.

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PERMISSION TO REPRODUCE FIGURES AND EXTRACTS

Permission to reproduce copyright material, for print and online publication in perpetuity, must be cleared and if necessary paid for by the author; this includes applications and payments to DACS, ARS and similar licensing agencies where appropriate. Evidence in writing that such permissions have been secured from the rights-holder must be made available to the editors. It is also the author's responsibility to include acknowledgements as stipulated by the particular institutions. Please note that obtaining copyright permission could take some time. Oxford Journals can offer information and documentation to assist authors in securing print and online permissions: please see the Guidelines for Authors section at http://www.oxfordjournals.org/access_purchase/rights_permissions.html. Should you require copies of this then please contact the editorial office of the journal in question or the Oxford Journals Rights department on journals.permissions@oup.com.

For a copyright prose work, it is recommended that permission is obtained for the use of extracts longer than 400 words; a series of extracts totalling more than 800 words, of which any one extract is more than 300 words; or an extract or series of extracts comprising one-quarter of the work or more.

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COPYRIGHT AND LICENCE

It is a condition of publication for all Oxford Journals that authors either assign copyright or grant an exclusive licence to Oxford University Press or the sponsoring Society. This ensures that all of the rights needed for publication of the article are in place and any requests from third parties to reproduce content from the journals are handled efficiently and consistently by OUP, enabling the content to be as widely disseminated as possible. No article will be published unless the signed licence has been received at Oxford Journals. Upon receipt of accepted manuscripts at Oxford Journals authors will be invited to complete an online copyright licence to publish form, and the Publisher will provide further instruction at that point. Any queries about the licence form should be sent as soon as possible to Rights and Permissions so that any issues can be resolved quickly and to avoid any delay in publication.

As part of the terms of the licence agreement, Authors may use their own material in other publications written or edited by themselves provided that the journal is acknowledged as the original place of publication and Oxford University Press as the publisher. As the Author(s), copyright of the Article remains yours (or your employer’s if your employer claims copyright in your work). See here for full details of Oxford Journals' copyright policy and the rights retained by you/your institution under the terms of the licence. Please note that for any content published as part of the Oxford Open program, there is an extended range of rights retained by you as the Author. For more details, please go to: http://www.oxfordjournals.org/oxfordopen/policies.html and further information is provided below.

Work submitted for publication must be original, previously unpublished, and not under consideration for publication elsewhere. If previously published figures, tables, or parts of text are to be included, the copyright-holder’s permission must have been obtained prior to submission. For more information on how to obtain permissions, please consult Rights and Permissions.

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OPEN ACCESS OPTION FOR AUTHORS

International Health authors have the option to publish their paper under the Oxford Open initiative; whereby, for a charge, their paper will be made freely available online immediately upon publication. After your manuscript is accepted the corresponding author will be required to accept a mandatory license to publish agreement. As part of the licensing process you will be asked to indicate whether or not you wish to pay for open access. If you do not select the open access option, your paper will be published with standard subscription-based access and you will not be charged.

Oxford Open articles are published under Creative Commons licences.

RCUK/Wellcome Trust funded authors publishing in International Health can use the Creative Commons Attribution licence (CC-BY) for their articles.

All other authors may use the following Creative Commons licence:
• Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial licence (CC-BY-NC)

Please click here for more information about the Creative Commons licences.

You can pay Open Access charges using our Author Services site. This will enable you to pay online with a credit/debit card, or request an invoice by email or post. The applicable open access charges vary according to which Creative Commons licence you select. The open access charges are as follows.

  • All except commentaries (CC-BY-NC): £1750 / $2800 / €2275
  • Commentaries (CC-BY-NC): £875 / $1400 / €1138
  • All except commentaries (CC-BY): £2000 / $3200 / €2600
  • Commentaries (CC-BY): £1000 / $1600 / €1300
  • Developing Country List B* (CC- BY-NC) (reduced fee subscription access) All except commentaries: £875 / $1400 / €1138
  • Developing Country List B* (CC- BY-NC) (reduced fee subscription access) Commentaries: £438 / $700 / €569
  • Developing Country List B* (CC- BY) (reduced fee subscription access) All except commentaries: £1000 / $1600 / €1300

*Visit our developing countries page (click here for a list of qualifying countries).

Please note that these charges are in addition to any colour charges that may apply.

Orders from the UK will be subject to the current UK VAT charge. For orders from the rest of the European Union, OUP will assume that the service is provided for business purposes. Please provide a VAT number for yourself or your institution, and ensure you account for your own local VAT correctly.

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PROOFS

Authors are sent page proofs by email. These should be checked immediately and corrections, as well as answers to any queries, returned to the Editorial Office as an annotated PDF via email within 3 working days (further details are supplied with the proof). It is the author's responsibility to check proofs thoroughly.

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OFFPRINTS

The corresponding authors will receive electronic access to their paper free of charge which can be distributed to co-authors and colleagues. Printed offprints may be purchased in multiples of 50 or 100. You will receive a link from the Publisher to the online author services site to purchase offprints or copies of the issue in which your paper will be published in, and to see our prices.

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ADVANCE ACCESS

Advance Access articles are published online soon after they have been accepted for publication, in advance of their appearance in a printed journal. Appearance in Advance Access constitutes official publication, and the Advance Access version can be cited by a unique DOI (Digital Object Identifier). When an article appears in an issue, it is removed from the Advance Access page.

Articles posted for Advance Access have been copyedited and typeset and any corrections included. This is before they are paginated for inclusion in a specific issue of the Journal. Once an article appears in an issue, both versions of the paper continue to be accessible and citable.

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