Information for AuthorsBACKGROUND AND SCOPE OF THE JOURNAL
EDITORIAL OFFICE CONTACT INFORMATION
PROCESSING OF PAPERS
OPTIONAL OPEN ACCESS
ONLINE SUBMISSION DETAILS
BACKGROUND AND SCOPE OF THE JOURNAL
The Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy was founded in 1975 and is owned by the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (BSAC), which exists to facilitate the acquisition and dissemination of knowledge in the field of antimicrobial chemotherapy. Any profit generated through the operation of the Journal is used by the BSAC in the furtherance of its objectives. The Journal is published monthly and is among the foremost international journals in antimicrobial research. Our readership includes representatives of academia, industry and health services, and includes those who are influential in formulary decisions. The Journal has an impact factor of 5.338 (2012). Unless authors have elected optional open access publication, journal articles are available only to subscribers for 12 months from the month of publication in print. Thereafter all articles are freely available online. This balances the desire for wide access to research with the need to retain a subscription income for the Journal.
The Journal features articles on the laboratory aspects and clinical use of antimicrobials including antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, and antiprotozoal agents. In addition to a wealth of primary papers, JAC carries review articles offering in-depth discussion on matters of topical concern, and lively leading articles offer incisive coverage of recent advances and controversies. Other article types include: systematic reviews, antimicrobial practice (articles on practical prescribing and formulary issues), correspondence (a section for case reports and research letters, as well as letters to the Editor commenting on articles published in the Journal) and book reviews (helpful reviews of relevant, newly published titles).
The Journal particularly welcomes manuscripts that enhance the practice of evidence-based medicine (clinical trials, systematic reviews and meta-analyses), improve antimicrobial treatment (pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and prescribing practices) and enhance our understanding of the action of antimicrobial agents and the mechanisms and epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance. For studies on the antimicrobial properties of natural products, authors are strongly discouraged from submitting work on materials that have not been chemically defined. For non-randomized studies evaluating the effectiveness of interventions, the uncontrolled before and after design is generally agreed to be intrinsically weak and this type of study is very unlikely to be judged acceptable for publication unless there are other compelling reasons.
Early in vitro studies of new compounds must include comparative cytotoxicity data from human or animal cells in tissue culture in order to establish that the compound has selective antimicrobial activity and therefore may be a realistic prospect for future clinical use in humans.
Where authors have identified previously unreported antimicrobial activity relating to a marketed drug, consideration should be give to the clinical relevance of such activity, in particular when taking into account the exposure to the drug that can be safely achieved with clinically acceptable doses.
With increasing submissions to JAC it has become necessary to increase the rejection rate to approximately 80%. Manuscript evaluation time (i.e. time from submission to first decision) is typically 4–6 weeks, and the time from acceptance to publication is approximately 4-6 weeks (papers are published online ahead of print, which greatly reduces publication times).
Papers submitted to JAC should fall within the scope of the Journal, should be scientifically sound, well written and concise, and should make a significant contribution to the field of study. High-quality, important articles that are well written and concise will naturally tend to progress through the system more quickly.
EDITORIAL OFFICE CONTACT INFORMATION
The contact details for the JAC Editorial Office are as follows:
53 Regent Place
Tel: +44 121 262 1830
Fax: +44 121 212 9822
PROCESSING OF PAPERS
Where to submit
All material to be considered for publication should be submitted in electronic form via the Journal's online submission system at:
Given that you can produce a file of your paper through a word processing package of some description, you only need the three following items to access and use the system: access to the website via a web browser, Adobe Acrobat Reader (which can be downloaded free of charge from http://www.adobe.com/) and an e-mail account. For more guidance see the section ONLINE SUBMISSION DETAILS.
In addition to submitting your paper online you should simultaneously provide a written statement, signed by all the authors indicating that you have complied with the stipulations in the Instructions to Authors. A copy with the original signatures must be faxed to the Editorial Office as soon as possible after online submission. A blank form is available at http://www.oxfordjournals.org/jac/for_authors/signature.pdf. If at any stage during consideration the authorship of the article changes, the authors must supply a signed statement from ALL the authors (including any whose names are being removed) explicitly indicating the nature of the changes and their agreement.
Article types and format
All documents should be double spaced, with wide margins. A clear, legible single font (which is readily available internationally) and point size should be employed throughout. For symbols, please use the 'insert symbol' function and ONLY select characters from the 'normal text' subset. All submitted articles should be line numbered (using continuous line numbers). To do this in Word, use File, Page Setup, Layout, Line Numbers and select continuous line numbering. Please DO NOT insert page numbers (as the pdf proof created by the online submission system will automatically be page numbered).
All articles should include a title page comprising: article title; author names and their affiliations (each affiliation address must be given separately and in full); telephone, fax and e-mail contact details for the corresponding author; a short running title; and 3-5 keywords (very general terms such as 'bacteria' and 'human' and terms already present in the title should be avoided, as should non-standard abbreviations). In addition, all articles must include a Funding section (if reporting original research) and a Transparency declarations section.
Original articles and Brief reports must have a structured synopsis. The headings for the structured synopsis are as follows: Objectives, Patients and methods (or Methods), Results, and Conclusions.
Original articles. There is no length limit for this format; however, papers must be written as concisely as possible. Original articles are divided into the following sections: Synopsis (250 words maximum), Introduction, Materials (or Patients) and methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgements, Funding, Transparency declarations and References. Repetition of content between sections must be avoided. A combined Results and Discussion section is acceptable.
Brief reports. These should have the same format as Original articles, but should have no more than two figures/tables, should have a maximum of 20 references and should not exceed 1500 words of text.
Antimicrobial practice. Articles on topics related to the use of antimicrobials, format as for Original articles/Brief reports.
Correspondence. Letters on topics of concern or interest in the field of antimicrobial chemotherapy, particularly arising from papers or letters already published in the Journal. These should be addressed to the Editor-in-Chief and must not exceed 800 words, one figure or table and 10 references.
Case reports. JAC will publish Case reports that are of sufficient calibre and potential importance, and they should be submitted in the form of Correspondence (see above). Please note that patient anonymity MUST be preserved in Case reports (see the later section on Ethics approval and patient consent/privacy).
Systematic review articles. There is no length limit for this format. A systematic review, as defined by the Cochrane Handbook, is ‘A review of a clearly formulated question that uses systematic and explicit methods to identify, select, and critically appraise relevant research, and to collect and analyse data from the studies that are included in the review. Statistical methods (meta-analysis) may or may not be used to analyse and summarize the results of the included studies.’ They should include a structured synopsis (with appropriate headings; these may differ from the headings used for Original articles etc.).
Review articles. There is no length limit for this format. These generally aim to give an overview of a field suitable for a wide audience, and they should include a synopsis (250 words maximum). Most reviews are invited. We are pleased to consider unsolicited reviews, but authors are encouraged to consult the Editor-in-Chief in advance of writing to avoid duplicating commissioned material.
Leading articles. These are usually in the region of 800-1000 words and may contain the expression of opinion as well as fact. They should address a topical subject, perhaps taking a particular viewpoint and throwing new light on a current debate. A leading article should include a short synopsis (150 words maximum) that should convey the topics and ideas the article covers. Those wishing to contribute a Leading article are encouraged to contact the Editor-in-Chief to discuss their ideas before writing to prevent clashes with any articles already in the pipeline.
Please note that on publication all Original articles and Brief reports, as well as Antimicrobial practice papers, will be published under the heading of Original research so that articles on similar topics can be grouped together when assigned to an issue. In addition each piece of Correspondence will be published as either a Research letter or a Letter to the Editor.
After preliminary examination of the submission by Editorial Office staff to check that all the necessary elements are present, the paper is passed to the Editor-in-Chief. The Editor-in-Chief then assigns the paper to an appropriate Senior Editor. The Senior Editor is then responsible for selecting an Editor to handle the article. Articles can be rejected immediately by the Editor-in-Chief, a Senior Editor or an Editor without further peer review. The assigned Editor is responsible for selecting referees and obtaining referee reports.
The usual number of referees is two, however, the Editors reserve the right to make a decision on a paper on the basis of one referee report, or seek the opinion of more than two referees if they judge this to be necessary or desirable. Leading articles and Correspondence are not routinely sent for external refereeing, but the Editor-in-Chief, Senior Editors and Editors reserve the right to seek the opinion of one or more external referees if they judge this to be necessary or desirable.
Senior Editors, Editors and referees are asked to consider whether they have any conflicts of interest when they are assigned a paper, and if necessary to decline to handle the paper. See the section ‘Conflicts of interest’ for more information on this subject.
If an Editor decides upon rejection of a paper, it is passed back to the handling Senior Editor for approval of this decision. All rejection correspondence therefore originates from a Senior Editor. Authors should regard rejection as final and only resubmit if they have been invited to do so. Papers may be rejected for a number of reasons, including: (i) they may be of only peripheral interest and perhaps more suitable for submission to a different journal; (ii) they may be, in the opinion of the reviewers, scientifically flawed; (iii) they may be unclear or overly long; or (iv) they may not make a significant contribution to the literature.
Requests that a revised version of a paper be submitted for consideration are sent direct to the corresponding author from the Editor responsible. Any revised version should be submitted within 6 weeks of the revision request or the Journal reserves the right to consider the manuscript as a new submission that may be subject to further refereeing.
The Editor-in-Chief, Senior Editors and Editors reserve the right to request more rounds of revision and resubmission/refereeing, or reject a paper outright, if they judge that any revised version does not adequately address the concerns raised by the referees and the Editor. Once the Editor is satisfied that a revised version has adequately dealt with any points raised they may accept the paper.
Authors can appeal against a decision by contacting the handling Senior Editor, but unless there has been a gross misunderstanding of the submitted article by the Editor and referees, rejection appeals are not likely to be successful. Authors should appreciate that if they resubmit an article that has been rejected without substantially modifying it in line with the suggestions of the Editor and referees, it is almost certain to be rejected again.
After acceptance the paper is sent for copy-editing and typesetting prior to production of proofs for author correction.
The Journal maintains the right to edit any paper to the extent necessary to achieve clarity and precision of expression and to conform with English usage and the Journal's conventions. Please note that if authors ignore requests to conform with Journal style at the revision stage, these changes may be enforced during copy-editing and proof production.
Articles submitted by Editors of the Journal
JAC does not bar Editors (including Senior Editors and the Editor-in-Chief) from submitting articles to the Journal. Articles submitted by Editors are handled in the same fashion as other articles subject to the following considerations: these articles are never assigned to the submitting Editor, or an Editor from the same institution; the submitting Editor is unable to access details of their article through the online submission system; and, like other authors, the submitting Editor will not know the identity of the handling Editor (in cases of rejection) or referees.
Supplement articles are subject to peer review and may be rejected. Unless specialist external expertise is required, this peer review is conducted among the team of Editors that is dealing with the Supplement.
An e-mail containing a link to the proof is sent to the corresponding author. The proof should be read carefully, paying particular attention to any tables, figures and references, and corrections (and answers to any queries) should be submitted to the JAC Editorial Office as soon as possible. Authors should pay particular attention that they check any dosage directions, owing to the seriousness of any error entering the printed record. Extensive changes at the proof stage are not permitted. Authors may be charged for correction of their non-typographical errors. The Journal reserves the right not to comply with changes marked on the Author's proof if these are contrary to the style set down in the Instructions to Authors.
In the event of important developments in a field that affect the paper arising after the final revision, a 'Note added in proof' may be permitted. Please note that Supplementary data files are largely unedited and are not proofed out.
JAC Advance Access
JAC Advance Access is the Journal's system for the early online publication of articles ahead of the monthly printed journal issue. Advance Access papers are posted as soon as possible, in exactly the same format as they appear in the issue (i.e. once author and proof-reader corrections have been incorporated) – in order to protect the integrity and accuracy of the scientific record we believe that it is very important that articles are only published once they have been copy-edited, typeset and proof-checked. JAC Advance Access significantly reduces time from acceptance to publication for JAC articles (to approximately 4-6 weeks). If you are a subscriber to the Journal you can view the Advance Access papers by visiting www.jac.oxfordjournals.org and clicking the Advance Access link.
The corresponding author will receive a unique URL that gives access to the electronic version of their published paper free of charge. If authors wish to purchase print offprints they can do so via the Oxford Journals Author Services site where they can also complete the licence agreement. Orders from the UK will be subject to the current UK VAT charge. For orders from elsewhere in the EU you or your institution should account for VAT by way of a reverse charge. Please provide us with your or your institution’s VAT number.
Material offered for publication must be original, unpublished and not under simultaneous consideration by another journal. Any previous publication of the material (including abstracts in conference proceedings or posters, or in a clinical trials results database) must be declared in the covering letter, as well as in the Acknowledgements section of the paper. For these purposes the posting of essentially raw data on a website without significant analysis, is not considered to represent prior publication. In addition, authors must include in the covering letter details of ANY previous submission of the work to JAC that has been rejected. The manuscript number of the earlier submission must be provided, as well as a point-by-point response to the comments made in the decision e-mail for the previous submission.
Authors should not fragment their research into least publishable units. Authors must be aware that JAC may decline to publish articles if this approach becomes evident.
Authors are fully responsible for the accuracy of all data in their articles.
JAC reserves the right to use plagiarism detection software on any submitted material.
JAC is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), and strives to adhere to its code of conduct and guidelines. For further information see http://www.publicationethics.org.uk/. Authors are also expected to behave ethically and unacceptable practices include: (i) plagiarism; (ii) fabrication or falsification of data; (iii) omission of legitimate authors, Funding information or financial conflicts of interest; (iv) inclusion of authors who have not made a significant contribution to the design and execution of the work described; and (v) redundant/duplicate publication.
In-press papers or papers under editorial consideration
In-press and submitted papers that are important for the review of a paper MUST be uploaded when the paper is submitted and referred to in the covering letter that accompanies the submission. Authors should be aware of the issues of redundant/duplicate publication. For further information, please see the following Editorial:
Reeves DS, Wise R, Drummond CWE. Duplicate publication: a cautionary tale. J Antimicrob Chemother 2004; 53: 411-2.
If requested by a Reviewer, Editor or Senior Editor, authors must be prepared to provide any sequence data that is not in the public domain, and on which their article relies, for confidential independent scrutiny.
Please note that it is also possible to submit files containing Supplementary data. The Supplementary data (for example large tables of MICs, or a questionnaire) can be lodged with the version of the paper published online as an extra resource for readers. Supplementary data is largely unedited and is not proofed out so authors should ensure that they provide high quality, accurate files. In addition, authors must ensure that they cite the Supplementary data within the article. Please contact the Editorial Office if you would like further details.
The authorship of the paper should be confined to those who have made a significant contribution to the design and execution of the work described. In the case of clinical trials/randomized control trials it is compulsory for the contribution of each author to be clearly stated in the Transparency declarations section, after the information on conflicts of interest. Authors of other types of article may indicate the contribution made by each author if they wish.
JAC recommends that authors review the ICMJE criteria for authorship before submission (http://www.icmje.org/#author).
Author signed submission forms
When submitting a paper online authors should simultaneously provide a written statement, signed by all the authors indicating that they have complied with the stipulations in the Instructions to Authors (the statement MUST include the title of the paper and the COMPLETE list of authors). A copy with the original signatures must be scanned and e-mailed (preferred) or faxed to the Editorial Office as soon as possible after online submission (email@example.com/+44-121-212-9822). A blank form is available at http://www.oxfordjournals.org/jac/for_authors/signature.pdf. If at any stage during consideration the authorship of the article changes, the authors must supply a signed statement from ALL the authors (including any whose names are being removed) explicitly indicating the nature of the changes and their agreement.
Please note that the Journal requires the original signatures of ALL authors. This is the only way in which the Journal can be certain that all authors agree with the submission. If it is impossible to obtain the signature of a particular author (owing to death, loss of contact or other reasons), the corresponding author should explain the circumstances.
Please also note that electronic signatures or copied and pasted signatures are not acceptable.
Changes in authorship
The author list of any submission should be decided upon and fixed BEFORE submission. Other than in exceptional circumstances the Journal does not allow addition or removal of author names after submission. A satisfactory explanation for any proposed changes in authorship will be required and ALL authors will be required to supply new signed consent forms that reflect the changes. We will also require a signed consent form from any person whose name has been removed indicating that they agree to the removal of their name from the author list. Owing to the complexity of these rules we strongly advise authors to fix the author list before submission and not to attempt to make changes later.
'Umbrella' groups and authorship
Many large collaborative studies (frequently resistance surveys) are organized under a group name that represents all of the participants. JAC will not accept a group name as an 'author' of an article. All articles must have at least one named individual as author. Authors of large collaborative studies should list the author(s) of the article and follow this with 'on behalf of the GROUP NAME'. The names of all of the participants should then be listed in the Acknowledgements section.
Professional medical writers and editorial assistance
Professional medical writers and other forms of writing assistance have an important role to play in the clear communication of scientific results. However, unless this role is openly explained and acknowledged unfounded suspicions about this role will continue. JAC encourages the open and precise description of any such assistance received by authors in relation to any article. It is possible that writers may qualify for authorship of a manuscript, we recommend that authors review the ICMJE criteria for authorship before submission (http://www.icmje.org/#author).
The precise role of the writer or service in the origin or preparation of the manuscript must be declared in the Transparency declarations section; we recommend that the name of the writer (and their agency where applicable) or the service is provided. If this support was funded, the source must be declared in the Funding section.
Responsibilities of the corresponding author
For each paper submitted to JAC there must be a single corresponding author. As the representative of the authors, the corresponding author must ensure that all authors are given access to submitted and revised versions of papers. The corresponding author is responsible for the collation of the authors' signatures on submission letters and also the collation and communication of proof corrections to the Journal. The corresponding author should be the signatory of the publication licence form. As the authors' nominated representative, the corresponding author will be held primarily accountable for any failure to comply with the Instructions to Authors or generally accepted standards of good practice. This does not absolve other authors of responsibility, however.
The corresponding author will act as the primary contact for correspondence regarding the paper, and as such authors should take care not to appoint a corresponding author likely to be absent for extended periods (such as a sabbatical) during the consideration of the paper as this is likely to cause unacceptable delays.
Please note that papers submitted via ScholarOne Manuscripts must be submitted through the account of the corresponding author listed on the paper, not through the account of one of the other authors or the account of a third party who is not on the author list. This is to ensure that there can be no argument regarding the identification of the corresponding author. In addition, the authors listed during the submission process on the ScholarOne Manuscripts website must fully match the author list of the actual submitted article.
Ethics approval and patient consent/privacy
Research involving humans
Authors must indicate in the Methods whether the research was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and national and institutional standards. If approval was obtained from an Ethics Committee the authors should indicate this, as well as any approval/reference number. Written informed consent must be obtained from study participants and the existence of this consent must be stated in the article.
Patient privacy. Patients have a right to privacy. Any information that might result in identification of individuals must be omitted, especially if it is not directly clinically relevant. Patient age, sex, admission dates and co-morbidities should be removed as far as possible. If it is possible that a patient could be identified, the authors must obtain written informed consent from the individual(s) concerned and state that this has been obtained in the article. Publication consent forms should be retained by the authors and not supplied to the Journal. If the patient is deceased the next of kin should be contacted. If consent cannot be obtained the authors must explain the circumstances briefly in the article, as well as in detail in the covering letter. In rare circumstances where relevant clinical details mean that the patient can be identified, the patient/next of kin must be shown the manuscript before submission and made aware as part of the informed consent process that the article may appear on the internet.
Research involving animals
Authors must state their compliance with relevant institutional and national standards for animal care and experimentation, together with the details of any authorities that licensed the experiments.
ALL papers submitted to JAC reporting original research MUST include a ‘Funding’ section. This section should appear after the 'Acknowledgements' section.
Details of all funding sources for the work in question must be given.
Authors must list any internal funding. If no specific funding has been received then this should be clearly stated; equally if data have been generated as part of the routine work of an organization, this too should be stated. Ongoing financial support for any of the authors should also be included under the Funding heading.
If a professional medical writer or similar service was involved in the origin or preparation of a manuscript and this support was funded, the source must be declared in the Funding section.
Sources of funding may of course still be thanked in the Acknowledgements section, but should not be listed again in the Transparency declarations (see below), unless there is an important reason for doing so. For example if the funder played any decision-making role in the research this must be stated.
The following rules should be followed:
- The sentence should begin: ‘This work was supported by …’
- The full official funding agency name should be given, i.e. ‘the National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health’ or simply 'National Institutes of Health' not ‘NCI' (one of the 27 subinstitutions) or 'NCI at NIH’ (full RIN-approved list of UK funding agencies is at http://www.rin.ac.uk/files/List-of-major-UK-research-funders.pdf)
- Grant numbers should be complete and accurate and provided in brackets as follows: ‘(grant number ABX CDXXXXXX)’
- Multiple grant numbers should be separated by a comma as follows: ‘(grant numbers ABX CDXXXXXX, EFX GHXXXXXX)’
- Agencies should be separated by a semi-colon (plus ‘and’ before the last funding agency)
- Where individuals need to be specified for certain sources of funding the following text should be added after the relevant agency or grant number 'to (author initials)'.
An example is given here: ‘This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health (P50 CA098252 and CA118790 to R. B. S. R.) and the Alcohol & Education Research Council (HFY GR667789).
Conflicts of interest
Conflicts of interest have the potential to affect authors, referees and Editors (including Senior Editors and the Editor-in-Chief). JAC has the following systems in place to deal with conflicts of interest:
Authors. Authors are required to include a Transparency declarations section in every submission to the Journal (for details see below).
Referees. When invited to act, and again when they agree to act, referees are reminded to consider whether they have any potential conflicts of interest. Referees are asked to discuss any perceived potential conflict with the Editor of the article who will reach a decision as to whether it is appropriate that the referee acts on the article or whether they should withdraw.
Editors. The Editor-in-Chief, Senior Editors and Editors register their interests (including personal and business interests) with the BSAC. The BSAC Register of Interests is held at BSAC Headquarters, is updated periodically and is available for inspection. When an article is assigned to a Senior Editor or an Editor they are reminded to consider whether there are any potential conflicts of interest, and if so, to discuss them with the handling Senior Editor or the Editor-in-Chief, who will come to a decision as to whether it is appropriate for them to act on the article, or whether it should be reassigned.
In the interests of openness, ALL papers submitted to JAC MUST include a ‘Transparency declarations’ section (which should appear at the end of the paper, before the ‘References’ section). We suggest authors concentrate on transparency declarations (i.e. conflicts of interest) of a financial nature, although relevant non-financial disclosures can also be made. Authors should consider making a declaration if they answer 'Yes' to any of the following questions:
1. Have you in the period of research leading up to this publication accepted any of the following from an organization (including government departments or granting bodies) that may in any way be financially affected by the conclusions of your article (e.g. reimbursement for attending a symposium, a fee for speaking, a consultancy fee, funds for research other than directly for this work, funds for a member of staff, any other substantial material benefit)?
2. Do you directly own any stocks or shares in a company that might be financially affected by the conclusions of your article?
3. Has the funder of the research played any decision-making role in the design, execution, analysis or reporting of the research?
4. Have you received the assistance of a professional medical writer or similar service? [The precise role of the writer or service in the origin or preparation of the manuscript must be declared and we recommend that the name of the writer (and their agency where applicable) or the service is provided.]
5. Have you accepted any reimbursement for preparing your article?
Authors should either include appropriate declarations or state ‘None to declare’. Importantly, the declarations should be kept as concise as possible, should avoid giving financial details (e.g. sums received, numbers of shares owned etc.), and should be restricted to declarations that are specific to the paper in question. Authors will of course need to consider whether or not the transparency declarations need to be amended when revisions are submitted.
The burden of responsibility rests with all authors, who must ensure that appropriate declarations are included. The corresponding author will be responsible for obtaining the relevant information from all of their co-authors. By signing a submission form each author is stating that they have made any necessary transparency declaration. All authors should carefully consider the embarrassment and potential damage to their reputation that could result should they fail to declare an interest that is revealed subsequently.
If only some authors need to make a declaration it must be made clear that the remaining authors have nothing to declare, for example:
'A.B. has received funds for speaking at symposia organized on behalf of Panacea Ltd and has also received funds for research from Panacea. C.D. is a member of the Panacea advisory board for fantastazole. All other authors: none to declare.’
All papers submitted to JAC must include a transparency declarations section; papers that do not include such a section will not enter the review process; they will be returned to the corresponding author so that the appropriate section can be added. Following resubmission the paper will then be progressed to peer review.
In the case of clinical trials/randomized control trials it is compulsory for the contribution of each author to be clearly stated in the Transparency declarations section, after the information on conflicts of interest. Authors of other types of article may indicate the contribution made by each author if they wish.
Other useful information
In some instances (often when the authors themselves have no interests to declare) it may be helpful to readers as background information to give brief details of organizations that do have an interest but do not appear elsewhere in the article, for example ‘Fantastazole is owned by Wonder Pharmaceuticals’.
We will energetically pursue accusations of misconduct directed at authors, Editors or referees and have a number of sanctions at our disposal including the option to inform employers about accusations and ask them to mount their own internal investigations. Accusations should not be made lightly or in the absence of the likelihood of supporting evidence being obtainable. The Journal may take the view that accusations are malicious if supporting evidence cannot be found and may direct sanctions against accusers in such cases. Any accusation of misconduct should be addressed to the Editor-in-Chief (unless it involves the Editor-in-Chief, in which case it should be directed to the Chairman of the Advisory Board). JAC is a member of COPE and will follow its guidelines on the handling of investigations into research misconduct.
Clinical trials/Randomized controlled trials
Registration and data publication
Authors must register their trials in one of the databases dedicated to registration of trials. In addition, authors must state the database and provide the unique registration number – both in the abstract and in the main body of the paper.
JAC will consider for publication clinical trials for which there has been prior publication of trial data in results databases (such as http://www.clinicalstudyresults.org/about/ or others), however, authors MUST declare in the covering letter and the Acknowledgements section of the article that they have previously published data in a results database.
The contribution of each author must be clearly stated in the Transparency declarations section, after the information on conflicts of interest.
All involved in the publication of health intervention research have a duty to patients and society at large to ensure that this research is reported in a complete, accurate and transparent fashion. This includes authors, referees, Editors and Journals. JAC takes this responsibility seriously and endorses the work of organizations such as the EQUATOR network (http://www.equator-network.org/), an international initiative that seeks to improve the reliability and value of the medical research literature.
There is a wide range of reporting guidelines, each specific for different types of study. Some of those for study types that are frequent in JAC are mentioned specifically below. Authors should consult the EQUATOR network website (http://www.equator-network.org/) for links to the latest versions of guidelines, which are organized by the study type.
Randomized controlled trials
Authors should comply with the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement (www.consort-statement.org/) and use the resources within it (for example the checklist and flow diagram) to ensure they have addressed potential criticisms and provided all necessary information. Authors should include a CONSORT flow diagram in their article, and provide a copy of the completed checklist.
Systematic reviews and meta-analyses
For systematic reviews and meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials authors should comply with the PRISMA statement (which replaces the QUORUM statement), which consists of a checklist and flow diagram (http://www.prisma-statement.org/index.htm). Authors should include a PRISMA flow diagram in their article, and provide a copy of the completed checklist.
Outbreaks and intervention studies in nosocomial infection
Authors should comply with the ORION statement (www.idrn.org/orion.php), which is the CONSORT equivalent for infection control studies. Its purpose is to increase the quality of research and reporting in the area of nosocomial infection.
Authors of articles describing economic evaluations of antimicrobial interventions are encouraged to make use of the following resources, where applicable, in order to ensure that their work is both optimal and adequately described.
International Society of Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) Checklist for retrospective database studies, which can be accessed at: http://www.ispor.org/workpaper/healthscience/ret_dbTFR0203.asp
Quality of Health Economic Studies (QHES) Instrument. See Table 1 in: http://www.amcp.org/data/jmcp/Formulary Management-53-61.pdf
- obtain permission from the original publisher and, if requested, the original author (i.e. the corresponding author of the article from which the figure/table has come) for reproducing/modifying figures/tables.
- request the following when seeking to reproduce any kind of third party material:
(i) non-exclusive rights to reproduce the material in the specified article and journal.
(ii) print and electronic rights, preferably for use in any form or medium.
(iii) the right to use the material for the life of the work.
(iv) world-wide English-language rights. If rights for all languages can be secured, this is preferable.
(v) the right to use images with a resolution of 150 dpi in the PDF version of the journal or 72 dpi in the HTML version.
- include a statement indicating that permission has been obtained in the relevant legend/footnote.
- provide the Editorial Office with copies of any relevant paperwork.
For further details, as well as a template permissions request letter, please contact the JAC Editorial Office.
Upon receipt of accepted manuscripts at Oxford Journals authors will be invited to complete an online copyright licence to publish form.
Papers funded by the Wellcome Trust or RCUK will be given the option to select the Creative Commons Attribution licence (CC-BY) in compliance with their open access policies.
Please note that by submitting an article for publication you confirm that you are the corresponding/submitting author and that Oxford University Press ("OUP") may retain your email address for the purpose of communicating with you about the article and you agree to notify OUP immediately if your details change. If your article is accepted for publication OUP will contact you using the email address you have used in the registration process. Please note that OUP does not retain copies of rejected articles
No article will be published unless the signed licence has been received at Oxford Journals. Faxing a copy of the form when requested will assist in the rapid publication of your article.
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OPTIONAL OPEN ACCESS
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy authors have the option to publish their paper under the Oxford Open initiative; whereby, for a charge, their paper will be made freely available online immediately upon publication. This applies to all article types apart from Leading Articles, which are made freely available online immediately upon publication free of charge. After your manuscript is accepted the corresponding author will be required to accept a mandatory licence to publish agreement. As part of the licensing process you will be asked to indicate whether or not you wish to pay for open access. If you do not select the open access option, your paper will be published with standard subscription-based access and you will not be charged.
Oxford Open articles are published under Creative Commons licences.
RCUK/Wellcome Trust funded authors publishing in Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy can use the Creative Commons Attribution licence (CC-BY) for their articles.
All other authors may use the following Creative Commons licence:
• Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial licence (CC-BY-NC)
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Open access charges can be viewed in detail below. Please note that these charges are in addition to any colour/page charges that may apply.
Charges for the JAC vary depending on whether or not the paper is a Correspondence piece.
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CORRESPONDENCE – optional Oxford Open charges for CC-BY-NC:
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In addition to reading the information provided here, authors should consult a recent issue of the Journal for the layout and conventions used.
The past tense should be used throughout for description of the results of the paper, the present tense should be used when referring to previously established and generally accepted results.
Where possible SI units should be used.
Please ensure that characters with a similar appearance are consistent throughout the document and not from different Unicode sub ranges as with the Greek Delta.
Particularly if English is not your first language, before submitting your manuscript you may wish to have it edited for correct usage of English. This is not a mandatory step, but may help to ensure that the academic content of your paper is fully understood by journal editors and reviewers. Language editing does not guarantee that your manuscript will be accepted for publication. If you would like information about one such service provided by SPi, please click http://www.oxfordjournals.org/for_authors/language_services.html. There are other specialist language editing companies that offer similar services and you can also use any of these. Authors are liable for all costs associated with such services.
British spelling should be used. Spelling should follow that of the Oxford Dictionary for Scientific Writers and Editors and where this gives no guidance the Concise Oxford Dictionary. Spelling of drug names should conform with that given in the latest edition of the British National Formulary (published by the British Medical Association and the Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain and available online at http://www.bnf.org/bnf), but please note that JAC will continue to use methicillin (not meticillin).
Non-standard abbreviations should be defined at the first occurrence and introduced only where multiple use is made. See here for abbreviations that may be used without definition, as well as antimicrobial abbreviations (which may be used in Tables and Figures).
Dosage and routes of administration
Dosage frequencies should be given in full in English at each occurrence. Abbreviations are not permitted. Routes of administration other than intramuscular (im) and intravenous (iv), which may be abbreviated after definition, should be given in full in English.
Please note that all MIC data in JAC must be expressed in terms of mg/L (not μg/mL).
When genus and species are given together use a capital letter for the genus and a lowercase letter for the species and italicize both e.g. Staphylococcus aureus. After the initial use in the text of the full name of an organism the generic name should then be abbreviated to the initial letter, e.g. E. coli.
When the genus is used as a noun or adjective use lowercase roman unless the genus is specifically referred to e.g. 'staphylococci and streptococci' but 'organisms of the genera Staphylococcus and Streptococcus'.
The name of an order has an initial capital but is not italicized, e.g. Enterobacteriaceae. For genera in the plural, use lowercase roman, e.g. salmonellae.
When the species is used alone use lowercase e.g. viridans streptococci. For trivial names, use lowercase roman e.g. meningococcus.
Authors should use bacterial names present in the Approved List of Bacterial Names, Amended Edition (1989), Skermanm, V.B.D., McGowan, V. & Sneath, P.H.A., Eds, ASM Press, Washington, DC, USA (ISBN 1-55581-014-4), with subsequent alterations validly published by announcement in Validation Lists of the International Journal of Systematic and Environmental Microbiology (formally the International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology). A full list of validly published bacterial names is given at http://www.bacterio.cict.fr/allnames.html
Genetic and amino acid nomenclature
Bacterial genetics. Genotype designations are indicated with italic lowercase three-letter locus codes (e.g. par, his, ara). If several loci are involved in a related function the individual loci are designated by the addition of an uppercase italic letter to the locus code (parC, ompF).
Phenotype designations (for example the protein product of a bacterial gene) are given in roman type with an initial capital letter (OmpF, LacZ).
Erythromycin gene nomenclature should follow that described in: Roberts MC, Sutcliffe J, Courvalin P, Jensen LB, Rood J & Seppala H. Nomenclature for macrolide and macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance determinants. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1999; 43: 2823-30.
Yeast genetics. Wild-type alleles are all uppercase and italicized (LEU2), mutant alleles are all lowercase and italicized (leu2), and gene products are capitalized on the first letter and are not italicized (Leu2).
General. Authors should ensure that they confine discussion of changes in amino acid sequence to the context of the protein (e.g. OmpF) and nucleotide changes to the context of the gene (e.g. ompF). Please also be aware of the difference between a mutant (a strain with one or more mutations) and a mutation (a change in the sequence of the genetic material).
Amino acids. The full residue names or three-letter abbreviations are preferred in the text (e.g. a methionine residue at position 184 should be symbolized Met-184). The single letter codes may be used in figures. Amino acid changes should be designated Met-184→Val or M184V.
When comparing nucleotide or amino acid sequences authors should exercise care in the use of the term homology. Homology should only be used when a common evolutionary origin is being implied; it is incorrect to give a percentage homology between two sequences. The wing of a bird and the human arm are homologous structures (they are believed to have a common evolutionary origin), homology cannot be quantified. For sequence comparison authors should use the terms identity and similarity. Sometimes 'equivalent' or 'counterpart' is more appropriate than 'homologue'.
Authors submitting articles reporting the identification of new beta-lactamases must provide evidence that they have contacted the relevant clearinghouse (http://www.lahey.org/Studies/) to deposit the new sequence data and receive a unique designation for the new enzyme.
Macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin resistance determinant nomenclature
Nomenclature for macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin resistance determinants should follow the structure suggested by: Roberts MC, Sutcliffe J, Courvalin P et al. Nomenclature for macrolide and macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B antibiotic resistance determinants. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1999; 43: 2823-30. A new gene must have ≤79% amino acid identity with all previously characterized MLS genes before receiving a new unique name. Adding subscripts or superscripts to established genes is not acceptable. See: http://faculty.washington.edu/marilynr/. Before submitting a sequence to GenBank or submitting a manuscript for publication, please contact Professor Marilyn Roberts (firstname.lastname@example.org). Once a new name has been assigned you must indicate in your article that you have received approval by the nomenclature centre for the new gene name.
Tetracycline resistance determinant nomenclature
Nomenclature for tetracycline resistance determinants should follow that suggested by: Levy SB, McMurry LM, Barbosa TM et al. Nomenclature for new tetracycline resistance determinants. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1999; 43: 1523-4. A new gene must have ≤79% amino acid identity with all previously characterized tet genes before receiving a new unique name. Adding subscripts or superscripts to established genes is not acceptable. See: http://faculty.washington.edu/marilynr/. The Levy Group is responsible for coordinating the naming of new tet genes and before submitting a sequence to GenBank or submitting a manuscript for publication, please contact Laura McMurry (email@example.com). Once a new name has been assigned you must indicate in your article that you have received approval by the nomenclature centre for the new gene name.
qnr gene/allele nomenclature
Authors submitting articles reporting the identification of new qnr genes or alleles must provide evidence that they have contacted the relevant clearinghouse (http://www.lahey.org/qnrStudies/) to deposit the new sequence data and receive a unique designation. Authors should consult Jacoby G, Cattoir V, Hooper D et al. qnr gene nomenclature. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2008; 52: 2297-9.
Fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) experiments are performed in order to study drug interactions and they must be interpreted in the following way:
FICI<=0.5 = synergy
FICI>4.0 = antagonism
FICI>0.5-4 = no interaction
For further information please see the following Editorial:
Odds FC. Synergy, antagonism, and what the chequerboard puts between them. J Antimicrob Chemother 2003; 52: 1.
Authors of articles containing microarray data must ensure that the full datasets are lodged with an appropriate publicly available online database (the data must not be supplied for publication as Supplementary data alongside the article). The data should be supplied with the submitted article if they are not already publicly available. The name of the database and the accession numbers should be provided in the article. Authors must ensure that their data are available for public scrutiny from the online publication date of their article at the latest.
General nomenclature. The IUPAC recommendations on chemical nomenclature should be followed (IUPAC Compendium of Chemical Terminology (1987, ISBN 0 632 01767 8, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford). All chemical names are run together except those of acids, acetals, esters, ethers, glycosides, ketones and salts, which are printed as separate words; hyphens are used to separate numbers, Greek letters and some configurational prefixes, e.g. p-nitrophenol. Italics are used for certain prefixes, e.g. cis-, trans- and N. Small capitals are used for dextro- and laevo- prefixes, e.g. L-glutamine.
Drugs. Spelling of drug names should conform with that given in the latest edition of the British National Formulary. Chemical or generic names of drugs should be used; trade names may be referred to once only upon first use of the generic or chemical name. The content of proprietary formulations should be given if relevant. Generic names should not be abbreviated in the text; abbreviations may be used in Tables if there is limited space. If compounds are referred to by code name or company number either the structure or a reference to a paper illustrating the structure must be given, any previous code names or designations should be given on first use.
Supplier locations are required for all smaller/local suppliers.
Authors are responsible for the accuracy of all references, which must be checked against the original material. Reference citations should be restricted to those that are essential for introducing the purpose and context of the paper, describing methods that are not given in detail, and for discussing the results and any relevant issues raised by them. Authors are responsible for ensuring that references are quoted accurately and not taken out of context. References must not be cited in the synopsis.
Where possible authors should avoid citing conference abstracts or posters (partly because they are not peer reviewed and also because they often report interim findings and the final published studies can often come to substantially different conclusions) and authors MUST NOT cite abstracts that are more than 2 years old without excellent justification for doing so. In addition, abstracts must only be cited if they appear in published abstract books, journal supplements or in a permanent online archive.
References should be cited in the text using sequential numbers. Superscript numbers should be used and should be placed after any punctuation. When referring to several references, separate individual numerals by a comma or a hyphen for a range greater than two references. For instance: This was first discovered by Jones,1 and later confirmed by several other groups of investigators.2,3,5-7
Papers accepted for publication, but not yet published, may be included in the reference list; they should be listed as 'in press', with the name of the journal and the likely year of publication. Submitted work should be quoted as 'unpublished results'. Personal communications and unpublished results, which are permitted in the text only, must include the initials and surnames of all the workers involved; for the former citation, the person’s affiliation must be stated, e.g. ‘(J. Bloggs, NIH, personal communication)’, and documentary evidence (an e-mail will suffice) from the person quoted, showing their agreement to be so quoted, must be provided (the agreement must include the exact wording that appears in the paper).
All references should be listed numerically at the end of the text. Each reference should be preceded by a number (not superscript) followed by a full stop. Please see the following examples. Failure to conform to Journal style will result in the manuscript being returned to authors.
Journal reference (<= three authors)
Sanschagrin F, Levesque RC. A specific peptide inhibitor of the class B metallo-B-lactamase L-1 from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia identified using phage display. J Antimicrob Chemother 2005; 55: 252-5.
Journal reference (> three authors)
Williams I, Gabriel G, Cohen H et al. Zidovudine-the first year of experience. J Infect 1989; 18 Suppl 1: 23-31.
Long HC, Blatt MA, Higgins MC et al. Medical Decision Making. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1997.
Manners T, Jones R, Riley M. Relationship of overweight to haitus hernia and reflux oesophagitis. In: Newman W, ed. The Obesity Conundrum. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science, 1997; 352-74.
National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Methods for Dilution Antimicrobial Susceptibility Tests for Bacteria That Grow Aerobically—Sixth Edition: Approved Standard M7-A6. NCCLS, Wayne, PA, USA, 2003.
Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing: Fifteenth Informational Supplement M100-S15. CLSI, Wayne, PA, USA, 2005.
Hou Y, Qiu Y, Vo NH et al. 23-O derivatives of OMT: highly active against H. influenzae. In: Abstracts of the Forty-third Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Chicago, IL, 2003. Abstract F-1187, p. 242. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC, USA.
References to online material should be given in the reference list. It is important that the date you last accessed the site be included and that you check the site at the proof stage to ensure that the material is still available. Please note that URLs for the suppliers of materials must not be given in either the text or the references. The Journal does not accept any responsibility for the content of web pages cited.
NORM/NORM-VET 2000. Consumption of Antimicrobial Agents and Occurrence of Antimicrobial Resistance in Norway. http://www.vetinst.no/Arkiv/Zoonosesenteret/NORM_VET_2000.pdf (3 May 2005, date last accessed).
For online-only journals the following reference format should be used:
Health Protection Agency. The third year of regional and national analyses of the Department of Health’s mandatory MRSA surveillance scheme in England: April 2001-March 2004. CDR Wkly 2004; 14(29). http://www.hpa.org.uk/cdr/archives/2004/cdr2904.pdf (28 June 2005, date last accessed).
These should be employed sparingly and should be generally comprehensible without reference to the text. Each table should be supplied on a separate sheet and numbered consecutively using Arabic numerals in the order they are referred to in the text. Each must have a brief descriptive heading. Column headings must clearly explain the content of the column and indicate any units used. Footnotes should be kept to a minimum.
Tables must be created using the Table function in Word; they must not be inserted as images. Each data item should occupy a single cell and return characters should not be used within any Table. JAC reserves the right to move complicated Tables to online-only Supplementary data.
These must be employed sparingly to demonstrate important specific points. Figures should be numbered using Arabic numerals in the order in which they are referred to in the text. In figure LEGENDS, symbols should be described in words (e.g. filled circles, open squares etc.).
Wherever possible, figures should be two-dimensional. Authors should NOT supply 'three-dimensional' figures unless this is actually necessary to represent the data.
The quality of reproduction in JAC is limited by the quality of the submitted material. All figures must be of high quality - they should be sharply focused, have good contrast and any lettering must be clear and legible. Colour illustrations can be reproduced if there is sufficient scientific merit in doing so. Authors will be expected to pay for the cost of colour origination in the print version of the Journal (£350/US$600/€525.00 per figure). Alternatively, black and white figures can appear in the printed version of an article with colour versions appearing online (for which there is no charge) – figure legends will need to be suitably worded, e.g. This figure appears in colour in the online version of JAC and in black and white in the print version of JAC. Please state your preferred option (i.e. agreement to pay £350/US$600/€525.00 per figure for print and online colour or preference for online-only colour with no charge) in your covering letter.
Guidance for preparation of Figures
Figures should be sized to fit a single column of the Journal where possible (88 mm) or a double column if necessary (180 mm). The preferred font for lettering is Times; lettering should have an upper case height of 2 mm and a lower case height of 1 mm at publication size (corresponding to point size 8). Line thickness should be set at 0.5 points. Shading used on line drawings should be clear and distinctive; shades of grey and heavy stippling do not reproduce well. Lines and symbols should be drawn boldly enough to withstand reduction. The preferred symbols are filled circles, open circles, filled squares, open squares, filled triangles and open triangles, and should be no smaller than 1 mm (height/diameter) at publication size. Part labels should be lower case letters within parentheses, e.g. (a), (b), (c) etc.
ONLINE SUBMISSION DETAILS
The URL for JAC's online submission and peer review site is: http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/oup/jac
For online submission instructions, please follow this link.
Revised July 2012.
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