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Manuscript Format

Please note that the journal now encourages authors to complete their copyright license to publish form online


Please read these instructions carefully and follow them closely to ensure that the review and publication of your paper is as efficient and quick as possible. The Editors reserve the right to return manuscripts that are not in accordance with these instructions.

All material to be considered for publication in The Journal of Infectious Diseases (JID) should be submitted in electronic form via the journal's online submission system. Once you have prepared your manuscript according to the instructions below, instructions on how to submit your manuscript online can be found by clicking here.
Note: PDF only submissions are not accepted, manuscripts should be in Microsoft Word, LaTeX, WordPerfect or Rich Text Format.


Your manuscript will be returned if you do not do the following:

1. Specify the type of article and adhere to the following limits:

  • Major Article: 3500 words, 50 references, 7 inserts (tables and figures, with no more than 4 panels per figure) in print, and no more than 25 MB of online-only supplementary data.
  • Brief Report: 2000 words, 15 references, 2 inserts (with no more than 4 panels per figure) in print, and no more than 25 MB of online-only supplementary data.

2. Include a cover letter with the following information:

  • A statement that the manuscript has not been submitted or accepted elsewhere
  • A statement that all authors fulfill the criteria given in the Authorship paragraph (see below)
  • A statement indicating whether any writing assistance other than copy editing was provided in the preparation of the manuscript
  • A list of 5 potential reviewers, with their e-mail addresses, and a brief description for each of his/her qualifications as a reviewer

3. All file names—for manuscript, cover letter, figures, tables—should contain no spaces between numbers or letters. File names may be run together (e.g., authornamearticletitleversion1) or contain punctuation such as underscores, hyphens, or both (e.g., author-name-article-title-version-1 or author_name_article_title_version_1).

4. Ensure that the references are appropriately formatted in JID style

5. Ensure that all text, including tables and references, is double spaced

6. Ensure that the manuscript has page numbers

7. Use a title of no more than 160 characters and spaces and a running title of no more than 40 characters and spaces

8. Include the word count of the abstract and of the text

  • We require that all submissions use line-numbering within the text.

9. Include a footnote page with the following items:

  • A conflict of interest statement
  • A funding statement
  • Mention of any meeting(s) where the information has previously been presented
  • Corresponding author contact information

10. Include 3–10 key words at the end of the abstract

11. Include, in the Methods section, a statement regarding informed consent and human and/or animal experimentation guidelines, when indicated

12. Include the registry number for a report of a clinical trial

13. Provide written permission for all personal communications

14. Provide accession numbers for nucleotide sequences

15. Use only approved human genetic nomenclature and notation (see the relevant subsections of the "Manuscript Preparation" section, below)

16. Submit newly identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to the appropriate database; include previously recognized or recently submitted SNP numbers

JID complies with the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals (for the complete text, see, except that reference citations should appear in the text in square brackets (not parentheses). Text, tables, references, and legends must be double spaced. Italics should be used for genus and species names and for genes, but not for in vivo, in vitro, in situ, et al., or other Latin-derived expressions listed in Webster's Collegiate Dictionary; see a recent issue of JID for appropriate style.

All manuscripts—Major Articles, Brief Reports, Correspondence, Perspectives, Editorials, Reviews, and Supplement Articles—must have conflict of interest and funding statements (see the below sections for further details).

Major Articles describe original investigations that are an important advance in the field and that have been brought to an acceptable degree of completion. Major Articles must be no longer than 3500 words of text (from the beginning of the introduction to the end of the discussion; do not count the abstract or the references), and illustrations must be limited to the minimum necessary for clear and concise presentation. For Major Articles describing results of clinical trials (see "Clinical trials registration," below), the abstract must be structured with the headings Background, Methods, Results, and Conclusions and must be no more than 200 words; for other Major Article manuscripts, the abstract may be structured (200-word limit) or unstructured (150-word limit). The order of the text should be Background, Methods, Results, and Discussion. The methods section in the main article should be sufficiently detailed to allow readers to repeat the study without having to refer to supplementary material. Major Articles are limited to a maximum of 7 inserts (tables and figures combined, with no more than 4 panels allowed per figure) in print, 50 references, and no more than 25 MB of online-only supplementary data.

Brief Reports present complete studies that are narrower in scope than those described in Major Articles or that represent new developments. Manuscripts that are descriptive or primarily methodologic in nature, that report results of phase I and II vaccine trials (see "Clinical trials registration," below), or that describe in vitro chemotherapeutic studies should, in general, be submitted as Brief Reports. Brief Reports include an abstract (no more than 100 words) and are limited to no more than 2000 words of text, a total of 2 inserts (tables or figures) in print, 15 references, and no more than 25 MB of online-only supplementary data. The order of the text should be Background, Methods, Results, and Discussion. The methods section in the main article should be sufficiently detailed to allow readers to repeat the study without having to refer to supplementary material.

Correspondence (letters) must be submitted in reference to a previous publication in JID (within the preceding 12 months); otherwise they will not be considered. Please prepare the letter in manuscript format, including a title page. The letter cannot exceed 750 words of text, 1 insert (table or figure), and 10 references.

Editorials are invited by the Editor and are overviews or critiques of articles appearing in JID.

Perspectives are brief (<1500 words, limit 2 inserts, 25 references) individual viewpoints on controversial topics in infectious diseases. Unsolicited perspectives are considered, and authors should contact the Editor in advance of submission to determine whether the topic is deemed appropriate.

Reviews that are research oriented will be considered. They should be no longer than 3500 words (from the beginning of the introduction to the end of the discussion) and have no more than 7 inserts (tables and figures combined, with no more than 4 panels per figure) in print, 50 references, and no more than 25 MB of online-only supplementary data. Authors should contact the Editor in advance of submission to determine whether a specific topic is deemed appropriate and timely.

Tables and Figures

Major Articles are limited to a maximum of 7 inserts (tables and figures combined, with no more than 4 panels allowed per figure) in print and no more than 25 MB of online-only supplementary data. Brief Reports are limited to a maximum of 2 inserts in print and no more than 25 MB of online-only supplementary data. A single insert should not contain both tables and figures.

Data should not be repeated in both a table and a figure. Abbreviations and acronyms used in tables and figures must be explained in the table footnotes and figure legends, respectively, even if they were already defined in the text.


Tables should be numbered in the order of mention in the text. Tables should be typed double spaced throughout, with no vertical or internal rules. Footnotes and accompanying explanatory material should be kept to a minimum. Footnotes should be placed below the table and designated by superscript lowercase letters (listed in order of location when the table is read horizontally). Each column must have an appropriate heading describing the data in the column below, and units of measure must be clearly indicated. For further instructions on the preparation of tables in Word or WordPerfect, consult the Guidelines for Tables.

Figures and Illustrations

Figures should be clear and comprehensible, and should generally contain one panel. No more than four panels are allowed per figure. Each figure should have a resolution of at least 300 DPI, and should be provided, individually, in its native file format, i.e., the file type in which the image was created.

Image files should not be manipulated in any way, because this manipulation could lead to misinterpretation of the information present in the original image. Inappropriate manipulation may include, but is not limited to: movement, introduction, removal or enhancement of specific feature(s), changes in brightness, contrast, or color balance that obscure, eliminate, or misrepresent any information.
Digital images may be scrutinized by the editors for possible improper manipulation. If evidence is found of inappropriate manipulation, we reserve the right to ask for original data and, if that is not satisfactory, the manuscript may be rejected and the authors' institutions notified.

Patient identity must be removed in all figures (i.e., x-rays, MRIs, charts, photographs, etc.). Written informed consent is required from any potentially identifiable patient or legal representative, and should be presented in either the Methods section or the Acknowledgments.

For further information regarding figures, please click here.

All figures submitted to the journal in color will be published in color online at no cost. Figures in the print version of your article may appear in color or grayscale. Authors who choose to publish their figures in color in the print journal will be invoiced for $500 for the first page of color and $400 for each additional page of color: you will be asked to approve this cost when you submit your article online. You will be issued an invoice at the time of publication. If you opt for color online but grayscale in print, please ensure that the figure legend provides an accurate description of both the grayscale and color versions of the figure. (e.g., a graph’s green and red lines may turn out to be an identical shade of gray in grayscale.) A possible remedy would be to use a solid line in place of one colored line and dashes in place of the other. You will have a chance to look at the grayscale version of your figures in the proof stage.

Color Illustrations

Authors are required to pay the full cost of reproduction of color figures. For details see Journal Charges.

Supplementary Data

Authors may submit supplementary material for online-only publication if it is important and directly relevant to the understanding or interpretation of the main article. Such information might include more detailed methods, extended data sets/data analysis, or additional figures. All supplementary text and figures must be provided in suitable electronic formats, with each of the following as a separate file: text, each table, each figure with its own legend, each video. Do not submit any supplementary materials within the main manuscript document. All material to be considered as online-only supplementary data must be submitted at the same time as the main manuscript for peer review. It cannot be altered or replaced after the manuscript has been accepted for publication, and it will not be copyedited or typeset. Please indicate clearly all material intended as supplementary data upon submission and name the files (e.g., “Supplementary Figure 1,” “Supplementary Data,” etc.). Also ensure that the supplementary data are referred to in the main manuscript where necessary, for example as “(see Supplementary data)” or “(see Supplementary Figure 1).” The amount of supplementary material must be justified, and limited to no more than 25 MB. If the material is deemed appropriate by the editors, it will be posted online at the time the article is published. Since the supplementary material will not be edited, authors are responsible for its accuracy.


Supplements are published by JID. Requirements for supplement manuscripts follow those for JID manuscripts (e.g., cover letter, conflict of interest, and funding statements). Inquiries related to suitability of topic, program organization, and production should be made in writing to the Editor.

Cover Letter

All manuscripts submitted to JID must be accompanied by a letter declaring that the manuscript has not been submitted or accepted for publication elsewhere. This letter must warrant that all authors have seen and approved the content and have contributed significantly to the work. Authors should suggest five potential unbiased reviewers who are qualified to review their manuscript. A cover letter must also accompany a revised submission and must address, point by point, issues raised in the review process.

Related Manuscripts

If there appears to be significant overlap between another manuscript submitted to JID and another manuscript submitted (to JID or another journal) by the same authors or if there is an overlap between a manuscript submitted to JID and one published by JID or another journal, the editors will ask the corresponding author to respond to the question of overlap. On the basis of the response, the editors may choose to consider the manuscript further, ask for modification of the manuscript, or reject the manuscript; in the case of a rejected manuscript, the editors will provide the author(s) with a detailed explanation. The editors may also choose to take further action, which could include contacting the appropriate superior at the home institution and/or suspending publishing privileges in JID for a designated period of time. If it is found that the authors of an article published in JID had published an overlapping or identical manuscript in another journal, the editors will publish an announcement to that effect in JID.

Title Page

The title should be short, specific, and informative. The first name, initial(s), and surname of each author should be followed by his or her department, institution, city with postal code, and country. The fax, telephone number, and e-mail address of the corresponding author should also be provided. It is editorial policy to list only one author for correspondence. Any changes of address may be given next to the affiliations or acknowledgments. On the title page, please supply a running head of not more than 40 characters and spaces, a title of not more than 160 characters and spaces, the names and affiliations of all of the authors, and word counts of the abstract and the text. Each author's full name must be used. If there is potential confusion with respect to whether the first name presented is actually the last name of the author, please identify the last name.

Footnote Page

Footnotes must include (1) a statement that the authors either have or do not have a commercial or other association that might pose a conflict of interest (e.g., pharmaceutical stock ownership, consultancy, advisory board membership, relevant patents, or research funding); (2) a statement naming sources of financial support (including grant numbers); (3) the name, date (month and year), and location (city, state, and, if not USA, country) of a meeting at which all or part of the information has been presented (include an abstract number if possible); (4) the name, address, telephone and fax numbers, and e-mail address of the person to whom correspondence and requests for reprints should be addressed; and (5) current affiliations and addresses for authors whose affiliations have changed since completion of the study.


The abstract for a Major Article describing results of a clinical trial must be no more than 200 words and must be structured with the headings Background, Methods, Results, and Conclusions. The trial must be registered (see "Clinical trials registration"), and the abstract must include the registry's URL and the trial's registration number. Abstracts of other Major Articles may be structured (200-word limit) or unstructured (150-word limit). Abstracts of Brief Reports should be no more than 100 words. Whether structured or unstructured, the abstract must state the purpose of the research, the methods used, the results, and the conclusions. Do not cite references in the abstract. Include 3-10 key words, separate from the abstract. Authors are reminded that the abstract is of particular value to producers and users of online literature retrieval systems such as MEDLINE.


The text of Major Articles must be no longer than 3500 words, and that of Brief Reports no longer than 2000 words. The Methods section must include a statement that informed consent was obtained from patients or their parents or guardians and that human experimentation guidelines of the United States Department of Health and Human Services and/or those of the authors' institution(s) were followed in the conduct of clinical research, or that animal experimentation guidelines were followed in animal studies.


For commercially obtained products mentioned in the text, list full names of manufacturers. Generic names of drugs and other chemical compounds should be used.


Non-standard abbreviations should be defined at the first occurrence and introduced only where multiple use is made. Authors should not use abbreviations in headings.
Abbreviations do not need to be defined, even at first mention, if they are the standard abbreviations within AMA 10th edition (see pages 502–525).

Statistical Analysis

The statistical analyses used should be identified both in the text and in all tables and figures where the results of statistical comparison are shown.

Units of Measure

All data should be expressed in metric units; use of SI units is encouraged. Use °C for temperature.


Details of all funding sources for the work presented should be given in a separate section entitled “Funding.” This information should appear before the “Acknowledgment” section.
The following rules should be followed:

  • The sentence should begin: “This work was supported by …”
  • The full official funding agency name should be given, i.e., “the National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health” or simply “National Institutes of Health” not “NCI” (one of the 27 subinstitutions) or “NCI at NIH.”Please go to this Web site for a full RIN-approved list of UK funding agencies.
  • Grant numbers should be complete and accurate and provided in brackets as follows: “[grant number ABX CDXXXXXX]”
  • Multiple grant numbers should be separated by a comma as follows: “[grant numbers ABX CDXXXXXX, EFX GHXXXXXX]”
  • Agencies should be separated by a semicolon (plus “and” before the last funding agency)
  • Where individuals need to be specified for certain sources of funding the following text should be added after the relevant agency or grant number “to [author initials].”

An example is given here: “This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [P50 CA098252 and CA118790 to R.B.S.R.] and the Alcohol & Education Research Council [HFY GR667789].”

Crossref Funding Data Registry
In order to meet your funding requirements authors are required to name their funding sources, or state if there are none, during the submission process. For further information on this process or to find out more about the CHORUS initiative please click here.


Acknowledgments and details of non-financial support must be included at the end of the text before references and not in footnotes. Personal Acknowledgment should precede those of institutions or agencies. Please note that acknowledgment of funding bodies and declarations regarding conflict of interest should be given in separate "Funding" and "Conflict of Interests" sections, respectively.

Conflict of Interests

Further guidance on Conflict of Interests is available here.


Full references should be provided in accordance with the style of JID.

EndNote and Reference Manager are software programs for publishing and managing references/bibliographies, and are available from Thomson Reuters. If you use EndNote or Reference Manager to facilitate referencing citations, this journal’s style is available for use. Information on purchasing and downloading EndNote can be found here: Additional relevant information can be found here: For technical support, see

Major Articles are limited to 50 references, and Brief Reports are limited to 15 references. Only works that have been published or accepted for publication can be included in the reference list. Unpublished observations by the authors (authors' unpublished data), personal communications (J. L. Searle, personal communication), and manuscripts submitted for publication (H. Chapin and G. Miller, submitted) should be mentioned parenthetically in the text. Please note that all personal communication must be confirmed in writing by the person mentioned. Please number references in order of appearance; those cited only or first in tables or figures are numbered according to the order in which the table or figure is cited in the text. Example: If table 2 is cited in the text after reference 25, a new reference cited in table 2 will be reference 26.

References must follow the National Library of Medicine format as used in MEDLINE and Uniform Requirements. Provide all authors' (or editors') names when there are fewer than 7; for 7 or more, list the first 3 and add "et al." Titles of journals not listed in MEDLINE should be spelled out in full. Reference to a doctoral dissertation should include the author, title, institution, location, year, and publication information, if published. For online resources, include a URL and date accessed. Accuracy of references is the responsibility of the authors.

Examples of the proper format are as follows:

Journal Article

Uherova P, Connick E, MaWhinney S, Schlichtemeier R, Schooley RT, Kuritzkes DR. In vitro effect of interleukin-12 on antigen-specific lymphocyte proliferative responses from persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Infect Dis 1996; 174:483-9.

Book chapter

McIntosh K. Diagnostic virology. In: Fields BN, Knipe DM, Chanock RM, et al., eds. Fields virology. 2nd ed. Vol 1. New York: Raven Press, 1990:411-40.

Conference program

Lyon DJ, Cheng AFB, Norrby SR. Mechanisms of cefotaxime resistance in blood culture isolates of Enterobacter high prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases [abstract C43]. In: Program and abstracts of the 35th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (San Francisco). Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology, 1995:47.

Internet site

Public Health Service Task Force. Recommendations for the use of antiretroviral drugs in pregnant HIV-1 infected women for maternal health and interventions to reduce perinatal HIV-1 transmission in the United States. Available at: Accessed 24 April 2002.

For further information about medical references, see the PubMed Link Help Page.


Permission to reproduce copyright material, for print and online publication in perpetuity, must be cleared and if necessary paid for by the author; this requirement includes applications and payments to DACS, ARS, and similar licensing agencies where appropriate. Evidence in writing that such permissions have been secured from the rights-holder must be made available to the editors. It is also the author's responsibility to include Acknowledgment as stipulated by the particular institutions. Please note that obtaining copyright permission could take some time. Oxford Journals can offer information and documentation to assist authors in securing print and online permissions: please see the Guidelines for Authors section at Should you require copies of this, please contact the editorial office of JID in question or the Oxford Journals Rights department.

For a copyright prose work, it is recommended that permission is obtained for the use of extracts longer than 400 words; a series of extracts totaling more than 800 words, of which any one extract is more than 300 words; or an extract or series of extracts comprising one-quarter of the work or more.

Note: If you will be selecting an Open Access license for your manuscript, request Open Access re-use permission. If you are unable to secure such re-use or that option is not available, please state this clearly by supplying the following credit line alongside the material:

Title of content
Author, Original publication, year of original publication, by permission of [rights holder]
This image/content is not covered by the terms of the Creative Commons licence of this publication. For permission to reuse, please contact the rights holder.

Written permission must be obtained from all investigators cited in a personal communication who are not coauthors of the present manuscript and from the copyright owner if a previously published table or figure is to be reproduced. Additionally, authors should include a copy of "in press" references and articles by the same authors on the same subject that were submitted elsewhere. All letters of permission and references/articles should be mailed to the JID editorial office at 65 Landsdowne St., #412, Cambridge, MA 02139.


Authors are referred to the AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th ed., Oxford University Press, 2007) and the Chicago Manual of Style (15th ed., University of Chicago Press, 2003).

Language editing, if your first language is not English, to ensure that the academic content of your paper is fully understood by journal editors and reviewers is recommended, though optional. Language editing does not guarantee that your manuscript will be accepted for publication. For further information on this service, please click here. Several specialist language editing companies offer similar services and you can also use any of these. None of these services have been validated by JID, OUP or IDSA. Authors are liable for all costs associated with such services.


It is a condition of publication for all Oxford Journals that authors either assign copyright or grant an exclusive license to Oxford University Press or the sponsoring Society. This assignment ensures that all of the necessary rights needed for publication of the article are in place including provision for any requests from third parties to reproduce content from the journals are handled efficiently and consistently by OUP, enabling the content to be as widely disseminated as possible. No article will be published unless the license has been received in the system at Oxford Journals. Any queries about the license form should be sent as soon as possible to Rights and Permissions so that any issues can be resolved quickly and so any delay in publication is avoided.

As part of the terms of the license agreement, authors may use their own material in other publications written or edited by themselves provided that JID is acknowledged as the original place of publication and Oxford University Press as the publisher. As the author(s), copyright of the article remains yours (or your employer’s if your employer claims copyright in your work). See here for full details of Oxford Journals' copyright policy and the rights retained by you/your institution under the terms of the license.

Upon receipt of accepted manuscripts at Oxford Journals authors will be invited to complete an online copyright licence to publish form.

Work submitted for publication must be original, previously unpublished, and not under consideration for publication elsewhere. If previously published figures, tables, or parts of text are to be included, the copyright-holder’s permission must have been obtained prior to submission. For more information on how to obtain permissions, please consult Rights and Permissions.


Authors are sent page proofs by email. These proofs should be checked immediately and corrections, as well as answers to any queries, returned to the publishers as an annotated PDF via email or fax within 2 working days (further details are supplied with the proof). It is the author's responsibility to check proofs thoroughly.


Authors will receive electronic access to their article free of charge. Printed offprints may be purchased in multiples of 50, using the Oxford Journals Author Services site


Advance Access articles are a mix of accepted manuscripts, labeled as “Uncorrected Proofs”, and finalized manuscripts, labeled as “Corrected Proofs”. Uncorrected Proofs have been accepted by the journal but have not been copyedited or formatted for publication. Copyediting may lead to minor differences between the Uncorrected Proof and the Corrected Proof; there will be changes to the formatting and there may also be differences in the quality of the graphics. More information, including how to cite Advance Access papers, can be found on the Advance Access page page. Appearance in Advance Access constitutes official publication, and the Advance Access version can be cited by a unique DOI (Digital Object Identifier). When an article appears in an issue, it is removed from the Advance Access page.


The Journal of Infectious Diseases authors have the option to publish their paper under the Oxford Open initiative; whereby, for a charge, their paper will be made freely available online immediately upon publication. After your manuscript is accepted the corresponding author will be required to accept a mandatory license to publish agreement. As part of the licensing process you will be asked to indicate whether or not you wish to pay for open access. If you do not select the open access option, your paper will be published with standard subscription-based access and you will not be charged the additional fee.

Oxford Open articles are published under Creative Commons licenses.

RCUK/Wellcome Trust funded authors publishing in The Journal of Infectious Diseases can use the Creative Common Attribution license (CC-BY) for their articles.

All other authors can chose from the following Creative Commons license:

• Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives license (CC-BY-NC-ND)

Please click here for more information about the Creative Commons licenses.
You can pay Open Access charges using our Author Services site. This will enable you to pay online with a credit/debit card, or request an invoice by email or post. The applicable open access charges vary according to which Creative Commons license you select. The open access charges are as follows.

Charges for CC-BY
• Regular charge: £2188/ $3500/ €2844

Charges for CC-BY-NC-ND:
• Regular charge: £1875/ $3000/ €2438

Please note that these charges are in addition to any color charges that may apply.

Orders from the UK will be subject to the current UK VAT charge. For orders from the rest of the European Union, OUP will assume that the service is provided for business purposes. Please provide a VAT number for yourself or your institution and ensure you account for your own local VAT correctly.

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