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Scope of the Journal

The Journal of Infectious Diseases (JID) is sponsored by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Reports of research related to any aspect of the fields of microbiology, infection, and host response, whether laboratory, clinical, or epidemiologic, are considered for publication in JID. Major Articles and Brief Reports are peer reviewed; Correspondence is reviewed by the Editors.

PUBLICATION ETHICS

Authors should observe high standards with respect to publication ethics as set out by the Commission on Publication Ethics (COPE) and International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). Falsification or fabrication of data, plagiarism, including duplicate publication of the authors’ own work without proper citation, and misappropriation of the work are all unacceptable practices. Any cases of ethical misconduct are treated very seriously and will be dealt with in accordance with the COPE guidelines.

Authorship

The Uniform Requirements (for the complete text, see http://www.icmje.org) state that credit for authorship requires substantial contributions to (1) the conception and design or analysis and interpretation of the data, (2) the drafting of the manuscript or critical revision for important intellectual content, and (3) final approval of the version to be published. All authors must attest that they meet these authorship criteria. In addition, the authors must disclose whether any writing assistance other than copy editing was provided. The ICMJE form can be found here.

Originality

By submitting your manuscript to JID, it is understood that this it is an original manuscript and is unpublished work and is not under consideration elsewhere. Plagiarism, including duplicate publication of the author’s own work, in whole or in part, without proper citation is not tolerated by JID. Manuscripts submitted to JID may be checked for originality using anti-plagiarism software.

Conflict of interests

There is a potential conflict of interest when anyone involved in the publication process has a financial or other beneficial interest in the products or concepts mentioned in a submitted manuscript or in competing products that might bias his or her judgment. A footnote in the manuscript must include a statement either that the authors have or do not have an association that might pose a conflict of interest (e.g., pharmaceutical stock ownership, consultancy, advisory board membership, relevant patents, or research funding). The name of each contributing author and any potential conflict of interest for each author for the previous 2 years should be listed.

Examples:

  • Potential conflicts of interest. S.A. and K.H. are shareholders in Loke Diagnostics (Aarhus, Denmark).
  • Potential conflicts of interest. The author has served as consultant to and has received research grants from all of the manufacturers of the lipid formulations of amphotericin.
  • Potential conflicts of interest. E.H.P. has been a consultant to Fujisawa Healthcare, Inc., Gilead Sciences, Novartis, and GlaxoSmithKline and is a member of the speakers' bureaus for Pharmacia and Novartis. J.A.S. has received research funding from Bayer and Pharmacia, has been a consultant for Bayer and Pfizer, and has been on the speakers' bureau for Pfizer and Ortho McNeil.

If no potential conflict exists, the phrase "No conflict" should appear after the author's name.

The online submission system will require the corresponding author to certify that all potential conflicts of interest have been disclosed. If the article is accepted for publication, the disclosures will be published in the footnotes section.

EXPERIMENTAL ETHICS

Animal Experiments

When reporting animal experiments, authors should indicate whether the institution’s, national research council’s, or any other policy on the care and use of laboratory animals was followed. Authors are encouraged to consult the ARRIVE guidelines recommended by the National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research: http://www.nc3rs.org.uk/ARRIVEpdf

Human subjects

When reporting on human subjects, authors should indicate whether the procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the Helsinki Declaration (1964, amended most recently in 2008), which was created by the World Medical Association. Manuscripts should include a statement that the patient’s written consent was obtained and any information, including illustrations, should be anonymous, as far as possible. Authors should indicate that the design of the work has been approved by local ethical committees or that it conforms to standards currently applied in the country of origin. The name of the authorizing body should be stated in the manuscript.

Controls for Genetically Engineered Mice

For all experiments involving genetically engineered mice, inbred-strain background effects have become an important concern. The Editorial Board generally considers only the following as appropriate controls: the parental wild-type inbred strain (if the engineered animals studied have been backcrossed onto this strain for more than 4 generations) or littermates. If an alternative control was used, an explanation must be included in the cover letter to the Editor.

DEPOSITION OF SEQUENCE AND MICROARRAY DATA

Nucleotide and Protein Sequences

Nucleotide sequences must be submitted to the International Nucleotide Sequence Databases prior to manuscript acceptance, and the accession numbers must appear in the final revision of the manuscript. For more information, please see the GenBank, EMBL Nucleotide Sequence Database, and DNA Data Bank of Japan Web sites.

Microarray Data

Authors submitting microarray data should comply with the “Minimal Information About a Microarray Experiment” (MIAME) guidelines. Microarray data should also be submitted to GEO or ArrayExpress and to provide accession numbers by the time the paper is accepted.

Human Genetic Nomenclature and Notation

For human genes, use genetic notation and symbols approved by the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee. Human gene names and loci should be written in italicized capital letters and Arabic numerals. Human protein product names are not italicized. For genetic mutations in humans, use the notation approved by the Nomenclature Working Group.

Human Single-nucleotide Polymorphisms

For human genes, newly described single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) should be submitted to an appropriate database, such as dbSNP, prior to submission of revised manuscripts. The identification numbers of previously recognized SNPs (rs numbers) or recently submitted SNPs (ss numbers) should be provided in the manuscript if the number of SNPs is small, or they should be submitted as supplemental online material if the number is large.

Microorganism Nomenclature

JID attempts to use the latest widely accepted nomenclature. See Bergeys Manual of Determinative Bacteriology (9th ed., revised, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 1994) and Enzyme Nomenclature 1992: Recommendations of the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology on the Nomenclature and Classification of Enzymes (Academic Press, 1992). Formal terms for virus families, genera, and species should be those approved by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses: Virus Taxonomy-The Classification and Nomenclature of Viruses: Sixth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (Springer-Verlag, 1995). This volume also includes standard abbreviations for virus species. For names and abbreviations of chemical compounds, refer to The Merck Index: An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals (14th ed., Merck, 2006). The Editors appreciate the assistance of authors and readers who inform them of changes in nomenclature.

CLINICAL TRIALS

Registering Clinical Trials

For their results to be considered for publication in JID, all clinical trials must be included in a registry that is electronically accessible to the public free of charge. In common with the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), JID defines a clinical trial as "any research project that prospectively assigns human subjects to intervention or concurrent comparison or control groups to study the cause-and-effect relationship between a medical intervention and a health outcome." Studies designed for other purposes, e.g., phase I trials designed to evaluate pharmacokinetics or major toxicities, are exempt.

Registration should occur before patient enrollment. The corresponding author must provide the registry's URL and the trial's registration number at the end of the manuscript's abstract. Information on acceptable registries may be obtained at the ICMJE Web site. The registry of the National Institutes of Health is free, is open to all investigators, and meets JID requirements.

Reporting Clinical Trials

Authors of manuscripts describing results of randomized, controlled trials, whether in Major Articles or Brief Reports, should consult guidelines recommended in the revised CONSORT statement.

Other types of studies should follow established guidelines, where available. These include STARD (Standards for the Reporting of Diagnostic accuracy studies), STROBE (Strengthening the reporting of observational studies in epidemiology), PRISMA (Transparent Reporting of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) and MOOSE (Meta-analyses of observational studies). For further information on good reporting of health research studies, please go to the EQUATOR network.

PEER REVIEW PROCESS

All submissions to JID are initially reviewed by the Editor or Deputy Editor. At this stage, manuscripts may be rejected without peer review if they are considered more appropriate for a different journal, do not provide sufficient new information, or are not considered of general appeal to the readership of the journal. This fast rejection process means that authors are given a quick decision and do not need to wait for the peer review process. Manuscripts that are not instantly rejected are sent out for peer review—usually to two independent reviewers. Based on the comments from these reviewers and the Editors’ judgment, a decision is given on the manuscript.

PRESS EMBARGOES

Occasionally JID will issue press releases for some of its articles. Authors submitting to JID are expected to respect any press embargos set for their manuscript.

REPRINTS

Readers wishing to order reprints of an article published in The Journal of Infectious Diseases should complete the offprint order form and return it to Oxford Journals. Please note that the cost of reprints is twice the cost of the quoted offprint pricing.

SELF-ARCHIVING POLICY

For information about this journal's policy, please visit our Author Self-Archiving policy page.

MATERIAL DISCLAIMER

The opinions expressed in JID are those of the authors and contributors and do not necessarily reflect those of the Society, the Editors, the Editorial Board, Oxford University Press, or the organization to which the authors are affiliated.

JID reserves the right to edit for journal style, clarity, precision of expression, and grammar. Authors review these changes at the proof stage but must limit their alterations in proof to correction of errors and clarification of misleading statements.