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Information for Authors


As of 14/11/2014, a $75 (USD) submission fee will be charged for all manuscripts submitted to the journal, with the exception of those where all authors are from the countries included on lists A and B here.

The fee is non-refundable, and the Editor reserves the right to return a manuscript without sending it for review, should the manuscript be inconsistent with the aims and scope of the journal as outlined on the website, fail to meet the style requirements set out below, or be deemed to have a low probability of eventual publication. There is no submission fee for invited revisions. The submission fee will be payable through Paypal, and will be levied via the online submission system, Editorial Express.

New submission method for JLEO as of 1/1/11

All authors should submit manuscripts using the Editorial Express online submission form here. Submissions should be in PDF, Word, or Rich Text Format file formats. It is not necessary for a manuscript to conform to this style sheet at the time of submission, although all manuscripts must include footnotes and a list of references. All accepted manuscripts, however, must be revised by the author to conform to the style sheet. All material, including footnotes and references, should be double-spaced, with 1¼-inch margins. Footnotes should also be double spaced, numbered sequentially, and placed at the end of the text.

If you are using LaTex, a LaTex template can be found here.

Since The Journal of Law, Economics, & Organization is a refereed journal, only exclusive submissions will be considered.

As a condition of publishing an article with original quantitative analysis in The Journal of Law, Economics & Organization, the author or authors must, unless an exemption for proprietary data is requested and granted by The Journal of Law, Economics & Organization, promise to make their datasets, program files and log files accessible on the Internet within 3 years of the articles publication (and email The Journal of Law, Economics & Organization a URL link to this data). To be granted an exemption, an author should show good cause why the data cannot be released.


Please see The Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition.


Capitalize first letter for words of five or more letters.


Author's name and affiliation are on separate lines. Each author is on a separate line, regardless of shared affiliations.


Thomas P. Lyon
Indiana University

Eric Rasmusen
Indiana University


An abstract of not more than 150 words should accompany each manuscript.


This journal has implemented browse-by-subject using JEL codes. This code will be listed as part of the abstract. Please indicate which codes are to be used. If you have any question regarding JEL codes, please go to the following web site:


The first section of the paper can be "1. INTRODUCTION" or it can be unheaded, in which case the next section would be labeled 1.


Equation numbers should be flush right at the end of displayed equations. All displayed equations need not be numbered, only those you will refer to in text.

Equations in the main body of the paper should be numbered (1), (2), (3), etc.

Equations within the appendixes should be numbered (A1), (A2), (A3), etc., in Appendix A (or in the only appendix); (B1), (B2), (B3), etc., in Appendix B; and so on.


Appendixes should appear after the main text and before the footnotes.

If there is more than one appendix, they should be designated Appendix A, Appendix B, etc.


All footnotes should be numbered sequentially (do not use 1a, 1b), should be double spaced, and placed in one section following the text. They should contain only substantive comments and additional references not immediately relevant to the text. Mere citations, regardless of number, should be incorporated in the text, as shown above. The first footnote (unnumbered) can contain whatever acknowledgments and thanks the author thinks necessary (Example 1). Information on field interviews should appear only in footnotes (Example 3).

Example 1:
I wish to thank X, Y, and Z for their able editorial assistance and the ABC Foundation for its generous financial support.

Example 2:
1. For a discussion of social and political freedoms and their restraints, see Bay (1958) and Oppenheim (1961, chap. 4).

Example 3:
2. Interview with John Smith, Chief of Police, Buffalo, New York (January 2, 1974).


If you refer to more than one source by the same author published in the same year, differentiate them as follows:

...models devised by economists (Staniland 1970a:37; 1970b:13).
...according to Smith (2000a, 2000b).

If the author's name is already mentioned in the text, insert the year (and page number(s), if necessary) in parentheses after his name in the following manner:

Example: stated by British economist Michael Lipton (1970:5).

For two authors, cite as follows:

[text] (Hart and Herring 1977).

For three or more authors, cite as follows:

[text] (Ellman et al. 1976). discussed in Ellman et al. (1976).

For multiple citations, order chronologically:

[text] (Williamson 1976; Levy and Spiller 1994).

Newspaper articles should be referred to as follows:

...from the Niagara River (Buffalo Evening News, March 1, 1974:2).
...according to the Manchester (N.H.) Union Leader (May 15, 1974:14).

Cases used or cited should be in the style of the Harvard Law Review's A Uniform System of Citation (commonly called "Bluebook form"). Cases will be cited in the text as indicated below. Only unusual citations or long case histories will be put in footnotes.

in Hammer v. Dagenhart, 281 U.S. 201 (1918).
as was said in United States v. Nardone, 251 F.Supp. 186 (M.D. Tenn. 1966).

as was said in State v. Miller, 151 N.W. 2d 160 (Wis. 1966).

in the Commerce Clause (Hammer v. Dagenhart, 281 U.S. 201, 205 n.15, 1918).

in the unreported case of Smith v. Jones (1972).

1. Phila. Ct. Com. Pleas, No. 72-2101 (June Term), rev'd, 254 A.2d 201(Pa. 1973), cert. den., 403 U.S. 118 (1973).

Statutes should also be in Bluebook form.

Labor Management Relations Act (Taft-Hartley Act) §301(a), 61 Stat. 156 (1947), 29 U.S.C. §185(a) (1952).

U.S. Const. art I, §9.

Mass. Gen. Laws ch. 41, §95 (1932).

Cal. Agri. Code §351.

Pub. L. No. 320, 85th Cong., 2d Sess. §1 (Feb. 11, 1958).

In citing hearings, always include the bill number or subject matter with which the hearings are concerned, and retain the first word of the title as it appears on the cover page.

Proposed Amendments to the Hatch Political Activities Act: Hearings on H.R. 696 Before the Subcomm. on Elections of the House Comm. on House Administration, 86th Cong., 1st & 2nd Sess. 11 (1959-1960) (statement of Gordon E. Brewer).


Federal Reports

H.R. Rep. No. 353, 82d Cong., 1st Sess. 2 (1951) S. Rep. No. 2, 84th Cong., 1st Sess. 7 (1955).

When possible, give a parallel citation to the permanent edition of United States Code Congressional and Administrative News.

H.R. Rep. No. 98, 92d Cong., 1st Sess. 4, reprinted in [1971] U.S. Code Cong. & Ad. News 1017, 1018.

Federal Documents

House Comm. on Un-American Activities, Guide to Subversive Organizations and Publications, H.R. Doc. No. 137, 82d Cong., 1st Sess. 12 (1951).

U.S. Immigration Commission, Immigration Legislation, S. Doc. No. 758, 61st Cong., 3d Sess. 613 (1911).

C. Koepge, The Road to Industrial Peace, H.R. Doc. No. 563, 82d Cong., 2d Sess. 29-30 (1953).

Committee prints and unnumbered documents must be cited as works for institutional authors (Rule 16:1(b)). Note that the Congress and session number are part of the author's name.

Staff of Senate Comm. on the Judiciary, 81st. Cong., 2d Sess., Report on Antitrust Law 17 (Comm. Print 1950).


References are to be placed at the end of the manuscript, and should be double-spaced. List more than one publication by the same author in chronological order by date of publication, beginning with the earliest. For more than one publication in one year by the same author(s), add small letters (e.g., 1970a; 1970b) and order alphabetically by title. Examples of sources follow:


Last name, First name. Year. Title of Book. City: Publisher.

Schultz, Theodore W. 1964. Transforming Traditional Agriculture. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press.

President's Commission on Law Enforcement and the Administration of Justice. 1967. Task Force Report: The Police. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office.

Edited Volumes

Last name, First name. Year. Title of Article, in First initial Last name, ed., Title of Book. City: Publisher.

Olson, Mancur. 1979. An Evolutionary Approach to Inflation and Stagflation, in J.H. Gapinski and C.E. Rockwood, eds., Essays in Post-Keynesian Inflation. Cambridge, Mass.: Ballinger.

Articles in Periodicals

Last name, First name. Year. Title of Article, Journal Volume number: page range (month and date if each issue is separately paginated).

Balbus, Isaac. 1971. The Concept of Interest in Pluralist and Marxian Analysis 1 Politics and Society 151-77.

Goodman, Walter. 1970. Fair Game 67 Time 15-21 (September 16).

Bar-Gill, O., and C. Freshtam. Forthcoming. "Public Policy with Endogenous Preferences," Journal of Public Economic Theory.

Bar-Gill, O., and O. Ben-Shahar. 2004a. "The Law of Duress and Economics of Credible Threats," 33 Journal of Legal Studies (forthcoming).

Notes, Comments, Symposia, Etc., in a Periodical

Name of Journal. Year. "Comment: Title of article," Volume number Name of Journal Page range.

Harvard Law Review. 1967. "Comment: Neighborhood Law Offices: The New Wave in Legal Services for the Poor," 80 Harvard Law Review 805-62.

Wisconsin Law Review. 1967. "Note: Constitutional Law -- Search and Seizure -- Abandonment," 1967 Wisconsin Law Review 212-56.

Unpublished Papers

Last name, First name. Year. "Title of Paper." Presented at Event, Place, date.

Cameron, David R. 1980. "Economic Inequality in the Advanced Capitalist Societies: A Comparative Analysis." Prepared for delivery at the Harvard University Center for European Studies and the Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy, 1979-80.

Year. Title of Paper.Working paper, University.

Bebchuk, L., J. Coates, and G. Subramanian. 2003. The Power of Takeover Defenses. Working paper. Harvard Law School.


Last name, First name. Year. Title of Dissertation. Type of Dissertation [Ph.D., M.A. thesis], University.

Dennis, Christopher D. 1983. The Impact of Political and Economic Variables on the Distribution of New Income in the United States (1947-78). Ph.D. dissertation, University of Georgia.

More than One Author

Last name, First name, First name Last name, First name Last name, and First name Last name. Date. etc.

Smith, James D., Stephen D. Franklin, and Douglas A. Wion. 1973. The Distribution of Financial Assets. Washington, D.C.: Urban Institute.

Two References by the Same Author or Set of Authors

Use three em-dashes for subsequent entries.

Dahl, Robert A. 1956. A Preface to Democratic Theory. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

---. 1961. Who Governs? New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press.

Articles in Newspapers

Only articles with bylines should appear in the references: Last name, First name. Date. "Title of Article." Newspaper, month and day, page number.

Farnsworth, Clyde. 1984. "World Bank Cuts Loan Rate." New York Times, July 3, D1


Tables should approximate the appearance of printed tables, and should be typed each on a separate page and placed after the figure legends.

In text, indicate the desired location of tables as follows: <>

In text, cite as "Table 1."

Appendix tables are preceded by "A" (e.g., Table A1).


Figures should be clearly identified with the figure number and name(s) of the author(s). Upon acceptance of the manuscript, separate electronic files for each figure (in TIF, EPS, or PPT format) must be provided. Figure legends should be typed together on a separate page and placed after the references in the manuscript file.

Indicate the location of figures in the text as follows: <>

In text, cite as "Figure 1."


- 1%

- t-statistic

- p-value

- p < 0.05

- n

- No comma for four-digit numbers (e.g., 1000, 1843); comma in numbers with five or more digits (e.g., 10,000, 21,256).

Misc. Usage

- OK to use SE (standard error) and SD (standard deviation) in tables without spelling out, but spell out in text.

- Web site


Please note that the journal now encourages authors to complete their copyright licence to publish form online

Upon receipt of accepted manuscripts at Oxford Journals authors will be invited to complete an online copyright licence to publish form.

Please note that by submitting an article for publication you confirm that you are the corresponding/submitting author and that Oxford University Press ("OUP") may retain your email address for the purpose of communicating with you about the article. You agree to notify OUP immediately if your details change. If your article is accepted for publication OUP will contact you using the email address you have used in the registration process. Please note that OUP does not retain copies of rejected articles

It is a condition of publication in the journal that authors grant an exclusive license to Oxford University Press. This ensures that requests from third parties to reproduce articles are handled efficiently and consistently and will also allow the article to be as widely disseminated as possible. As part of the license agreement, authors may use their own material in other publications provided that the journal is acknowledged as the original place of publication, and Oxford University Press as the publisher.

Oxford Open articles are published under Creative Commons licences. Authors publishing in the Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization can use the following Creative Commons licences for their articles:
Creative Commons Attribution licence (CC-BY)
Creative Commons non-Commercial No Derivatives licence (CC-BY-NC-ND)

Please click here for more information about the Creative Commons licences.

You can pay Open Access charges using our Author Services site. This will enable you to pay online with a credit/debit card, or request an invoice by email or post. The open access charges applicable are:

Regular charge - £1750/ $2800 / €2275
List B Developing country charge* - £875 / $1400 / €1135
List A Developing country charge* - £0 /$0 / €0
*Visit our Developing Countries page for a list of qualifying countries

Please note that these charges are in addition to any colour/page charges that may apply.

Orders from the UK will be subject to the current UK VAT charge. For orders from the rest of the European Union, OUP will assume that the service is provided for business purposes. Please provide a VAT number for yourself or your institution, and ensure you account for your own local VAT correctly.


All authors are supplied with a free URL linking you to a press ready PDF version of your article. Offprints can be ordered here.

Orders from UK will be subject to the current UK VAT charge. For orders from the rest of the EU, we will assume that the service is provided for business purposes, please provide a VAT number for yourself or your institution and ensure you account for your own local VAT correctly.


Permission to reproduce copyright material, for print and online publication in perpetuity, must be cleared and if necessary paid for by the author; this includes applications and payments to DACS, ARS, and similar licensing agencies where appropriate. Evidence in writing that such permissions have been secured from the rights-holder must be made available to the editors. It is also the author's responsibility to include acknowledgements as stipulated by the particular institutions. Oxford Journals can offer information and documentation to assist authors in securing print and online permissions: please see the Guidelines for Authors section. Information on permissions contacts for a number of main galleries and museums can also be provided. Should you require copies of this, please contact the editorial office of the journal in question or the Oxford Journals Rights department.


It is the policy of The Journal of Law, Economics, & Organization to publish papers only if the data used in the analysis are clearly and precisely documented and are available to any researcher for purposes of replication. Authors of accepted papers that contain empirical work, simulations, or experimental work must provide to The Journal of Law, Economics, & Organization, prior to publication, the data, programs, and other details of the computations sufficient to permit replication. These will be posted on the JLEO website.

The editor should be notified at the time of submission if the data used in a paper are proprietary and/or confidential. In recognition of the fact that empirical work in organizational economics often relies on confidential as well as potentially proprietary data, the JLEO policy on data addresses each of these possibilities.

If a request for an exemption based on proprietary data is made, authors will be asked to post all the data and programs used to create the final results that can be posted without violating the proprietary nature of any data. For the confidential data, they will be asked to inform the editors if the data can be accessed or obtained (e.g. purchased) in some other way by independent researchers for purposes of replication, and to provide information on how the proprietary data can be obtained by others in their "ReadMe” PDF file.

If a request for an exemption based on confidential data is made, authors will be asked to post all the data and programs used to create the final results that that can be posted without violating the confidential nature of any data. Within reason, authors will agree to rerun their programs and provide results to other researchers for strict replication purposes, e.g. if other researchers find some issue within the posted programs.

Questions regarding any aspect of this policy should be forwarded to the editor.
Our policies differ somewhat for empirical and simulation papers, and for experimental papers.

For empirical and simulation papers, the minimum requirement should include the dataset(s) and programs used to run the final models, plus a description of how previous intermediate datasets and programs were employed to create the final dataset(s). Authors are invited to submit these intermediate data files and programs as an option; if they are not provided, authors must fully cooperate with investigators seeking to conduct a replication who request them. The data files and programs can be provided in any format using any statistical package or software. Authors must provide a "ReadMe "PDF file listing all included files and documenting the purpose and format of each file provided, as well as instructing a user on how replication can be conducted.

For experimental papers, we have a more detailed policy, including requirements for submitted papers as well as accepted papers. We normally expect authors of experimental articles to supply the following supplementary materials (any exceptions to this policy should be requested at the time of submission):

1. The original instructions. These should be summarized as part of the discussion of experimental design in the submitted manuscript, and also provided in full as an appendix at the time of submission. The instructions should be presented in a way that, together with the design summary, conveys the protocol clearly enough that the design could be replicated by a reasonably skilled experimentalist. For example, if different instructions were used for different sessions, the correspondence should be indicated.

2. Information about subject eligibility or selection, such as exclusions based on past participation in experiments, college major, etc. This should be summarized as part of the discussion of experimental design in the submitted manuscript.

3. Any computer programs, configuration files, or scripts used to run the experiment and/or to analyze the data. These should be summarized as appropriate in the submitted manuscript and provided in full as an appendix when the final version of a manuscript is sent in. (Data summaries, intermediate results, and advice about how to use the programs are welcome, but not required.)

4. The raw data from the experiment. These should be summarized as appropriate in the submitted manuscript and provided in full as an appendix when the final version of an accepted manuscript is sent in, with sufficient explanation to make it possible to use the submitted computer programs to replicate the data analysis.
Other information, such as applications to Institutional Review Boards, consent forms, or web signup and disclosure forms, is not required or expected. If it desired to make this kind of information public, it should be posted on laboratory or authors' websites.
If the paper is accepted by the JLEO, the appendices containing instructions, the computer programs, configuration files, or scripts used to run the experiment and/or analyze the data, and the raw data will normally be archived on the JLEO website when the paper appears.

Instructions for Sending Data, Appendices, Additional Materials, Final Manuscripts, and Figures

As soon as possible after acceptance, authors are expected to send their data, programs, and sufficient details to permit replication, in electronic form, to the JLEO office. Please send the files via e-mail to the JLEO office at, indicating the manuscript number.

Each file name should clearly indicate if the file is a “manuscript,” “data,” “appendix,” “figures,” or “additional materials.” Each file should contain the manuscript number (which should also be included in the subject line of the e-mail).

It is preferable to send each “group” of files (if there is more than one file for data, figures, additional materials, etc.) as a .zip file (for example, or Please use underscores instead of spaces when creating file names.

Appendices and manuscripts may be sent in PDF format (for example, 20030002_appendix.pdf or 2002002_finalpaper.pdf).
All datasets must include a PDF “ReadMe” file (clearly labeled, for example, ReadMe.pdf) containing a list of all files included and guiding a user on the types of files and how to use them to do replication. The PDF “ReadMe” file should be included in the .zip file containing the dataset.

For datasets that are too large to send by e-mail, we make available the option of uploading large files to our FTP server. Please contact the JLEO’s Editorial Offices at +1-203-432-1670 for instructions on accessing the FTP server.


Conflict of interest defined

A conflict of interest is construed as a personal involvement in a case or other matter being reported; a meaningful financial interest in the matter, or a connection with an author, including personal relationships or direct academic competition, that might raise the question of bias in reviewing and judging work submitted for publication.

Policy for editors and reviewers

Editors will refrain from participating in the evaluation and selection of articles as to which they may be reasonably perceived to have a conflict of interest. Similarly, outside reviewers will be expected to refrain from participating in the evaluation and selection of articles as to which they may be reasonably perceived to have a conflict of interest, and they will be advised that, by agreeing to review a submission, they are warranting that they are aware of no such conflict.

Legal cases and funding

When a court case is the focus of an article published in the journal, the author will declare any involvement he or she may have had in the case (as advocate, judge, or litigant) in a footnote on the title page. Similarly, any such involvement by The Journal of Law, Economics, & Organization editor will be disclosed.

Authors will be asked to declare any financial support related to their papers published in The Journal of Law, Economics, & Organization so that these too may be disclosed in a footnote.

Crossref Funding Data Registry

In order to meet your funding requirements authors are required to name their funding sources, or state if there are none, during the submission process. For further information on this process or to find out more about the CHORUS initiative please click here.


Orders from UK will be subject to the current UK VAT charge. For orders from the rest of the EU, we will assume that the service is provided for business purposes, please provide a VAT number for yourself or your institution and ensure you account for your own local VAT correctly.