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Submitting Manuscripts

Submission Procedures

Authors must submit manuscripts electronically via the Journal's Web-based submission system and use the Journal's Web site; submissions will not be accepted by e-mail or in hard copy.

Electronic Submission

Manuscripts may be submitted at the Journal’s online submission Web site, The submitter will indicate the files to be uploaded, and then identify these files.

See "File Types," below, for information about acceptable types. A cover letter is required and should be submitted as a separate file. Tables should be included in the article file. Each figure should be in a separate file. Related manuscripts should be uploaded as "Supplemental Material" (see "Cover Letter," above). The submitter will then be asked to enter the article's title (which may be pasted into the submission form from another document); to provide information about the authors; to initial several required statements; and to select the appropriate manuscript type, subject area, and key words.

The system will generate PDF files from the author’s original files, and the submitter will have an opportunity to approve these PDF files before they are forwarded to the editorial board. Please note that because the PDF file will replicate the formatting in the author's files, it is required that the manuscript be double-spaced.

The editorial office will communicate all decisions about the manuscript to the corresponding author by e-mail. Additional information about the submission process is available on the submission Web site; select "Author Instructions" from the menu bar near the top of the screen.

File Types

All article files, for any initial submission or revised manuscript, must be in a Microsoft Word–compatible format; such formats include the Word, Word Perfect, text, and RTF formats.

Figures may be submitted in TIFF, GIF, JPG, PDF, Postscript, EPS, Word, PowerPoint, or RTF format. Avoid submitting very large files; figures should be submitted at the lowest resolution that will permit reviewers to evaluate the work. Electronic versions of figures will be used for production. If a figure file is large (as will be the case for some color figures and for photomicrographs and other figures that need to be reproduced at high resolution), the author should upload a low-resolution version of the figure with the manuscript submission; if higher-resolution files are necessary during the publication process, instructions for providing those files will be sent at that time.

Tables must be submitted in Microsoft Word format as Microsoft Word tables. Tables must be included at the end of the article file and should not be submitted as separate files.

Material that cannot be supplied electronically

Some material that the editorial board requires for the evaluation of a manuscript may not be available in electronic form or may exist in an electronic form that is incompatible with the online submission system.

Such material might include: a) figures that must be viewed at very high resolution by reviewers (but lower- resolution electronic versions are preferred whenever these will be acceptable for review); b) microarray data; or c) very large related manuscripts or related manuscripts for which the author does not have the electronic version.

In such cases, the author should complete the electronic submission process for the text of the article and for any figures, tables, or related manuscripts that are available in electronic form. Material that can be scanned should be uploaded in the Journal's Web-based submission system. Large amounts of raw data or sequences that are stored on a public or institution web-based database can be cited in the text or supplementary files using the accession numbers and/or URL (see “Sequence Information and Microarray and Proteomic Data”).