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manuscript preparation instructions

How to contact the Editorial Office
Article Types
Manuscript format and structure
Manuscript Details
Journal copyediting style
Figures and illustrations
Permission to reproduce figures and extracts
Supplementary data
Copyright and license
Advance Access


Please read these instructions carefully and follow them closely to ensure that the review and publication of your paper is as efficient and quick as possible. The Editors reserve the right to return manuscripts that are not in accordance with these instructions.

All material to be considered for publication in the Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society should be submitted in electronic form via the journal's online submission system at Please be aware that you may have to register as a new user. Once you have prepared your manuscript according to the instructions below, instructions on how to submit your manuscript online can be found by clicking here.

Supporting Documents

All submitted manuscripts should include the following supporting documents:

Cover Letter

The cover letter must include the completed contact information (addresses, telephone and fax numbers, and e-mail) for both the corresponding author and an alternate author who can be contacted if the corresponding author is unavailable. The letter should warrant that all authors have seen and approved the manuscript, contributed significantly to the work, and also that the manuscript has not been previously published nor is not being considered for publication elsewhere. Authors are asked to provide names and contact information for 4 potential unbiased reviewers. They may also note the names of individuals whom they do not want to review their manuscript. Authors also should state in their cover letter whether they would bear the cost of reproducing their color figures or whether they prefer to have them published in black and white at no additional cost.

Related Manuscripts

A copy should be included of any closely related manuscript submitted to or published in JPIDS or elsewhere, as noted in the journal’s Duplicate Publication Policy.


Written permission should be obtained to adapt a part of or reprint an entire table, graph, or illustration that has been previously published. Authors are responsible for obtaining permission from the copyright holder to use copyrighted material prior to submission, and are responsible for paying any associated fees. Click here for more information on permissions.

Oxford Journals will deposit all NIH-funded articles in PubMed Central. See for details. Authors must ensure that manuscripts are clearly indicated as NIH-funded using the guidelines above.

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The Editorial Office can be contacted as follows:

Julie Weber-Roark

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Papers may be submitted in the following categories. The editors reserve the right to change the category for consistency with JPIDS style.

Original Articles

Report relevant investigations or observations within the Journal’s scope of interest:
• Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance
• Bacteriology
• Clinical
• Diagnostics
• Guidelines
• Healthcare Epidemiology, including Antimicrobial Stewardship and Infection Control
• Health Services Research
• Human Immunodeficiency Virus
• Immunology
• Infections in Immunocompromised Hosts
• Mycology
• Neonatal Infections
• Parasitology
• Pathogenesis
• Pharmokinetics/ Pharmacodynamics
• Vaccines
• Virology

Format guide:
• Word limit: 3000 words (excluding the abstract and references).
• Key points should be summarized on the title page in 40-words or less.
• References: 40 or less.
• Abstract: Up to 250 words, structured using the headings Background, Methods, Results and Conclusions.
• Tables/Figures: Data in the text should not be repeated extensively in tables or figures.

Brief Reports

Convey a focused message.

Format guide:
• Word limit: 1500 words (excluding the abstract and references).
• References: 10-12.
• Abstract: Up to 50 words, unstructured format.
• Tables/Figures: 1 table or figure.

Case Reports

Case reports should present unusual aspects of common problems or novel perspectives upon, or solutions to, clinically relevant issues.

Format guide:
• Word limit: 1500 words (excluding the abstract and references).
• References: 5 or less.
• No abstracts.
• Tables/Figures: 2 tables or figures.

Review Articles

Review topics should be related to aspects of pediatric infectious diseases and should reflect trends and progress or a synthesis of data.

Format guide:
• Word limit: 3000 words (excluding the abstract and references).
• Key points should be summarized on the title page in 40-words or less.
• References: 100 or less.
• Abstract: Up to 150 words, unstructured.
•Tables/Figures: Data in the text should not be repeated extensively in tables or figures.

Editorial Commentaries

Editorial commentaries relate to articles published in JPIDS and are invited at the discretion of the Editor.

Although most editorials are commissioned, JPIDS will consider unsolicited Editorial Commentaries. Please write a brief summary of your proposed editorial and email it to the editorial office.

Format guide:
• Word limit: 1200 words.
• Tables/Figures: A maximum of 1 figure or table.
• References: 10 or less.
• Ensure that there is a clear message in the conclusion.


Letters to the Editor should respond to a recently published article in JPIDS or address an issue of interest to JPIDS readers. Replies will be published in the same issue as the letter, and are invited at the discretion of the Editor.

Format guide:
• Word limit: 500 words.
• Tables/Figures: A maximum of 1 figure or table
• References: 10 or less.
• No subheadings.
• Begin with ‘To the Editor’


Supplements may be the proceedings of a symposium or the results of a study and are sponsored by universities, organizations, drug companies, and grants. Proposals related to suitability of topic, program organization, and production must be made in writing to the Editor.

Proposal format guide:
1.List of all topics to be covered
2.Estimated length of supplement
3.The complete contact information for a Guest Editor(s)
4.Potential authors and affiliations
5.The name and contact information for the sponsoring organization

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Please refer to a recent issue of JPIDS for guidance on style and layout of articles. Also refer to the Article type section for guidance on relevant information for each article type.

File Formats

The preferred format for submitting manuscripts online is Microsoft Word (.doc files). PDF files are not acceptable for submission.

File Contents

Manuscript .doc submissions are preferred as a single file, except for figures, which can be uploaded separately. You must also submit a cover letter in a second file, in the same format as your main file. Videos must be submitted in the MPEG or Quicktime format. For each video, please submit a still image captured from the MPEG or Quicktime file; this image will appear as a printable figure with the article. A video must have a legend that will appear with the still image. If you wish to submit a video, please consult with the JPIDS editorial office for further details.

Manuscript Preparation

Manuscripts should be double-spaced throughout, including the references and the table and figure legends, with 1-inch margins on each side. All pages, except for the figures, should be numbered in the lower right-hand corner of the page, with the title page as page 1. The recommended layout is as follows: title page, abstract, text, acknowledgments, references, tables, figure legends, and figures.

Title Page

All manuscripts, including Correspondence, should have a title page that includes the following information:

1. A concise, informative title
2. The names and affiliations of all authors. The first name, initial(s), and surname of each author should be followed by his or her department, institution, city, and country.
3. Up to 5 keywords
4. A running title of no more than 40 characters and spaces
5. The complete contact information for both the corresponding and alternate corresponding authors.
6. Major Articles, Reviews, and Viewpoints should also include a 40-word summary of the article’s main point.

It is editorial policy to list only one author for correspondence. A footnote stating joint first authorship is permitted.

Any changes of address may be given next to the Affiliations or in the Acknowledgments. Any deletions or additions to the author list after submission of the paper must be submitted in writing, and signed by all authors.


The second page of the manuscript should contain the Abstract. Please refer to the Article Type for Abstract formats. The Abstract should be comprehensible to readers before they have read the paper and should not contain reference citations.


Non-standard abbreviations should be defined at the first occurrence and introduced only where multiple use is made.


Authors are encouraged to follow the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals. They should strive for a concise article without excessive detail (word limits are specified under Categories of Articles. All but the shortest articles should have subheadings.


Details of all funding sources for the work in question should be given in a separate section entitled 'Funding'. This should appear before the 'Acknowledgements' section.

The following rules should be followed:

  • The sentence should begin: ‘This work was supported by …’
  • The full official funding agency name should be given, i.e. ‘the National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health’ or simply 'National Institutes of Health' not ‘NCI' (one of the 27 subinstitutions) or 'NCI at NIH’ (full RIN-approved list of UK funding agencies)
  • Grant numbers should be complete and accurate and provided in brackets as follows: ‘[grant number ABX CDXXXXXX]’
  • Multiple grant numbers should be separated by a comma as follows: ‘[grant numbers ABX CDXXXXXX, EFX GHXXXXXX]’
  • Agencies should be separated by a semi-colon (plus ‘and’ before the last funding agency)
  • Where individuals need to be specified for certain sources of funding the following text should be added after the relevant agency or grant number 'to [author initials]'.

An example is given here: ‘This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [P50 CA098252 and CA118790 to R.B.S.R.] and the Alcohol & Education Research Council [HFY GR667789].

Conflict of Interest

Further guidance on Conflict of Interests is available here.


Personal acknowledgment should precede those of institutions of agencies. Any substantial assistance in preparing the manuscript—for example, in data retrieval or statistical analysis—other than by an author should be stated.

Please note that acknowledgment of funding bodies and declarations regarding conflicts of interest should be given in separate Funding and Conflicts of Interest sections, respectively.


JPIDS reference style is based on the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals.

Names of journals are abbreviated according to the List of Journals Indexed for Medline. Titles of journals not listed in Medline should be spelled out in full. References should be numbered consecutively as they appear in the text, with the numbers in brackets on the text line (e.g., [3, 7–9, 57]). References first cited in tables or figures should be in sequence with those in the text; for example, if table 1 is mentioned in the text after reference [8], the next new reference cited in table 1 will be reference [9]. Unpublished data should be cited in the text as (unpublished data), but not included in the references list. References to manuscripts submitted, but not yet accepted, should be cited in the txt as (B Jones and L Smith, manuscript in preparation) and should not be included in the reference list. Citations of submitted manuscripts should include all authors involved. For references with >6 authors, the first 3 authors should be listed, followed by et al. Reference to a doctoral dissertation should include the author, title, institution, location, year, and publication information, if published. For online resources, a URL and date accessed should be included. Accuracy of references is the responsibility of the authors.

The citation of journals, books, multi-author books, and articles published online should conform to the following examples:

  • Gorecki DC, Monaco AP, Derry JMJ, Walker AP, Barnard EA, Barnard PJ. Expression of four alternative dystrophin transcripts in brain regions regulated by different promoters. Hum Mol Genet 1995;155: 505-511.
  • Francis,V. and Bastin,M. (2000) Gene targeting in rat embryo fibroblasts promoted by the polyomavirus large T antigen. Nucleic Acids Res., in press.
  • Maniatis T, Fritsch EF, Sambrook J. Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 1982.
  • Huynh TV, Young RA, Davis RW. DNA Cloning. In: Glover DM. DNA Cloning - A Practical Approach. Vol 1. Oxford, UK: IRL Press, 1988: 49-78.
  • Public Health Service Task Force. Recommendations for the use of antiretroviral drugs in pregnant HIV-1 infected women for maternal health and interventions to reduce perinatal HIV-1 transmission in the United States. Available at: Accessed 24 April 2002.
  • Lyon DJ, Cheng AFB, Norrby SR. Mechanisms of cefotaxime resistance in blood culture isolates of Enterobacter high prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases [abstract C43]. In: Program and abstracts of the 35th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (San Francisco). Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology, 1995.


All tables should be on separate pages and accompanied by a title, and footnotes where necessary. The tables should be numbered consecutively using Arabic numerals. Units in which results are expressed should be given in parentheses at the top of each column and not repeated in each line of the table. Ditto signs are not used. Avoid overcrowding the tables and excessive words. The format of tables should be in keeping with that normally used by the journal; in particular, vertical lines, colored texts, and shading should not be used. Please be certain that the data given in tables are correct.

In a footnote to the table, all abbreviations used should be defined, unless otherwise defined in the text, excluding units of measure. Footnotes and accompanying explanatory material should be kept to a minimum. Footnotes should be placed below the table and designated by superscript lowercase letters (listed in order of location when the table is read horizontally). Each column must have a heading describing the data below, and units of measure must be clearly indicated for all data.

Figure Legends

These should be on a separate, numbered manuscript sheet. Define all symbols and abbreviations used in the figure. Figures and legends should be intelligible without reading the text of the manuscript.



JPIDS attempts to use the latest widely accepted nomenclature. See Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology (9th ed., revised, Williams & Wilkins, 1994) and Enzyme Nomenclature: Recommendations of the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology on the Nomenclature and Classification of Enzymes (Academic Press, 1992). Formal terms for virus families, genera, and species should be those approved by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses; see Virus Taxonomy—The Classification and Nomenclature of Viruses: Seventh Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (Academic Press, 2000). This volume also includes standard abbreviations for virus species. For names and abbreviations of chemical compounds, refer to the Merck Index (13th ed., Merck, 2001). The Editors appreciate the assistance of authors and readers who inform them of changes in nomenclature.

Human Genetic Nomenclature and Notation

For human genes, use genetic notation and symbols approved by the Human Gene Mapping Workshop (see Wain HM, Bruford EA, Lovering RC, Lush MJ, Wright MW, Povey S. Guidelines for human gene nomenclature. Genomics 2002; 79:464–70). Human gene names and loci should be written in italicized capital letters and Arabic numerals. Human protein product names are not italicized. For human mutation nomenclature, see Antonarakis et al. (Recommendations for a nomenclature system for human gene mutations. Hum Mutat 1998; 11:1–3).

Human Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs)

For human genes, newly described SNPs should be submitted to an appropriate database, such as dbSNP (, prior to submission of the revised manuscript. The identification numbers of previously recognized SNPs (rs numbers) or recently submitted SNPs (ss numbers) should be provided in the manuscript, if the number of SNPs is small, or submitted as supplemental online material, if the number is large.

Statistical Analysis

The statistical analyses used should be identified both in the text and in all tables and figures where the results of statistical comparison are shown.

Units of Measurement

The use of SI units is encouraged. All data should be expressed in metric units. Temperature should be expressed in degrees Celsius.


Authors are referred to the AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th ed., Oxford University Press, 2007) and the Chicago Manual of Style (16th ed., University of Chicago Press, 2010). For commercially obtained products mentioned in the text, the full names of manufacturers should be listed. Generic names of drugs and other chemical compounds should be used.

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Patient’s identity must be removed in all figures (i.e., x-rays, MRIs, charts, photographs, etc.). Written informed consent is required from any potentially identifiable patient or legal representative, and should be presented in either the Methods section or the Acknowledgments. Figures should also be numbered in the order of mention in the text and should appear at the end of the manuscript and references. Figures will not be relettered by the publisher. The journal reserves the right to reduce the size of illustrative material.


Multipart figures should be submitted as a single file, with panels labeled within the image, rather than as multiple files. Letters, numbers, and symbols should be clear and of sufficient size to be legible when the figures are reduced. Photomicrographs should have internal scale markers. If the manuscript is accepted, the author will be required to supply high resolution figure files for production.

Save figure files in TIFF or EPS format, using CMYK colors, with fonts embedded. When creating figures, please make sure any embedded text is large enough to read. If figures contain miniscule characters such as numbers on a chart or graph, they will most likely be illegible in the final version.

For useful information on preparing your figures for publication, go to

Halftone illustrations, photographs

Any photomicrogaphs, electron micrographs, or radiographs must be of high quality with respect to detail, contrast, and fineness of grain to withstand the inevitable loss of contrast and detail inherent in the printing process . Wherever possible, photographs should fit within the print area or within a column width. Photomicrographs should provide details of staining technique and a scale bar. Patients shown in photographs should have their identity concealed or should have given their written consent to publication. Please indicate the magnification by a bar on the photograph. Minimum resolutions are 300 d.p.i for color or tone images.

Line Drawings

All line drawings should have clear and sharp lines. No additional artwork, redrawing, or typesetting will be done. Therefore, all labeling should be done on the original line drawing. Faint shading and stippling could be lost upon reproduction and should be avoided. Line drawings must have a resolution of at least 600 d.p.i. at their final size.

Color Illustrations

Authors are required to pay the full cost of reproduction of color figures. For details see JPIDS charges. If you require color reproduction of figures in the print journal you will be asked to approve the cost.

The JPIDS also offers free reproduction of color figures in the online version (figures in the print version will appear in black and white). Figure captions must be suitable worded to apply to both the print and online versions of the article.

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For a copyright prose work, it is recommended that permission is obtained for the use of extracts longer than 400 words; a series of extracting totally more than 800 words, or which any one extract is more than 300 words; or an extract or series of extract compromising one-quarter of the work or more.

Permission to reproduce copyright material, for print and online publication in perpetuity, must be cleared and if necessary paid for by the author; this includes applications and payments to DACS, ARS, and similar licensing agencies where appropriate. Evidence in writing that such permissions have been secured from the rights-holder must be made available to the editors. It is also the author's responsibility to include acknowledgements as stipulated by the particular institutions. Oxford Journals can offer information and documentation to assist authors in securing print and online permissions: please see the Guidelines for Authors section.

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Supplementary data is supporting material that cannot be included in the printed version for reasons of space and is not essential for inclusion in the full text of the manuscript but would nevertheless benefit the reader. The material should not be essential to understanding the conclusions of the paper but should contain data that is additional or complementary and directly relevant to the article content. Such information might include more detailed methods, extended data sets/data analysis, or addition figures or tables.

It is standard practice for appendices to be made available online-only as supplementary material. All text and figures must be provided in suitable electronic formats. All material to be considered as supplementary material must be submitted at the same time as the main manuscript for peer review. It cannot be altered or replaced after the paper has been accepted for publication, and will not be edited. Files for supplementary data should be clearly marked as such and be accompanied by a summary of the file names and types. Also ensure that the supplementary material is referred to in the main manuscript where necessary, for example as "(see Supplementary Material)" or "(see Supplementary Figure 1)."

Please note that supplementary data will not be copyedited, so ensure that it is clearly and succinctly presented, and that the style of terms conforms with the rest of the paper. It cannot be altered or replaced after the paper has been accepted for publication.

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It is a condition of publication in the JPIDS that the authors grant an exclusive license to the journal’s sponsoring society, the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society. This ensures that all of the necessary rights needed for publication of the article are in place including provision for any requests from third parties to reproduce the content to be as widely disseminated as possible. No article will be published unless the signed license has been received at Oxford Journals. On acceptance of your article for publication, the license form should be returned immediately by fax or by sending a scanned PDF copy, and the original must be posted as soon as possible. Faxing a copy of the form when requested will assist in the rapid publication of your article but the Original form should also be returned. Any queries about the license form should be sent as soon as possible to Rights and permissions so that any issues can be resolved quickly and to avoid any delay in publication.

As part of the license agreement, authors may use their own material in other publications, provided that the journal is acknowledged as the original place of publication and Oxford University Press is acknowledged as the publisher.

Upon receipt of accepted manuscripts at Oxford Journals authors will be invited to complete an online copyright license to publish form.

Work submitted for publication must be original, previously unpublished, and not under consideration for publication elsewhere. If previously published figures, tables, or parts of text are to be included, the copyright-holder’s permission must have been obtained prior to submission. For more information on how to obtain permissions, please consult Rights and Permissions.

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Authors are sent page proofs by email. To avoid delays in publication, proofs should be checked immediately and corrections, as well as answers to any queries, returned to the publishers as an annotated PDF via email or fax within 2 working days. Further details are supplied with the proof. It is the author’s responsibility to check proofs thoroughly.

Excessive alterations in the proof stage may delay publication of the article to a subsequent issue. Authors who make extensive amendments to the text at the page-proof stage will be charged an additional fee.

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The journal will provide a URL to authors for free electronic access to the published version of the article. Reprints may be purchased in multiples of 50. Offprint order forms and rates are sent out with the proofs, and must be returned with the proof corrections to Oxford University Press.

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Advance Access allows for papers to be published online soon after they have been accepted for publication—reducing the time between submission and publication. Articles posted for Advance Access have been copyedited and typeset but have not yet paginated for inclusion in a specific issue of the journal. Appearance in Advance Access constitutes official publication, with full-text functionality, and the Advance Access version can be cited by a unique DOI (Digital Object Identifier). The final manuscript is then paginated into an issue, at which point it is removed from the Advance Access page. Both versions of the paper continue to be accessible and citable.

Model B: Articles posted for Advance Access have been copyedited and typeset and any corrections included. This is before they are paginated for inclusion in a specific issue of the journal. Once an article appears in an issue, both versions of the paper continue to be accessible and citable.

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