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Information for Authors


Oxford Open


Contributors are asked to make every effort to comply with these guidelines, in order to help ensure speedy publication. Please pay particular attention to the instructions on double-spacing of text, and on the presentation of artwork.


Submission of a manuscript will be held to imply that it contains unpublished original material and that it is not being considered for publication elsewhere. Contributions should not normally exceed 9,000 words in length for full papers. Shorter articles (containing material of a more general nature) should not exceed 5,000 words and reports on research in progress should not be longer than 3,000 words. Each category may well be less than the limits indicated.

All manuscripts must be submitted online. Once you have prepared your manuscript according to the instructions below please visit the online submission web site. Instructions on submitting your manuscript online can be viewed here.


Authors will be sent a link by email to the PDF proof of their paper, and should return any corrections within three days of receipt.


Language Editing Pre-submission OUP offers pre-submission language editing through Oxford Language Editing, a service for researchers all over the world. Language editing, particularly if English is not your first language, can be used to ensure that the academic content of your paper is fully understood by the journal editors and reviewers. Visit to find out more about the freelance editors available and the different services offered. Please note that edited manuscripts will still need to undergo peer-review by the journal.


Authors will be given free online access to their papers. Authors will have the option to buy further offprints at reasonable prices. These can be ordered using the Oxford Journals Author Services site.


It is a condition of publication in the Journal that authors assign an exclusive licence to Oxford University Press. This ensures that requests from third parties to reproduce articles are handled efficiently and consistently and will also allow the article to be as widely disseminated as possible. As part of the licence agreement, authors may use their own material in other publications provided that the Journal is acknowledged as the original place of publication, and Oxford University Press is notified in writing and in advance.

Upon receipt of accepted manuscripts at Oxford Journals authors will be invited to complete an online copyright licence to publish form.

Please note that by submitting an article for publication you confirm that you are the corresponding/submitting author and that Oxford University Press ("OUP") may retain your email address for the purpose of communicating with you about the article. You agree to notify OUP immediately if your details change. If your article is accepted for publication OUP will contact you using the email address you have used in the registration process. Please note that OUP does not retain copies of rejected articles.


Paper size: The text should be on A4 paper (210 x 297 mm) or the nearest equivalent with ample margins. Only one side of the paper should be used. Two copies (top copy 1) of each manuscript must be submitted. The first page must give: title of the paper; names(s) of author(s) and address(es) where the work was done; name and address of the author designated to receive proofs and correspondence. Spacing in all copy, including notes and references, must be double-spaced.


An informative abstract of 220 words or less that concisely outlines the substance of the paper and states its principal conclusion should accompany the manuscript on a separate sheet.


Paragraphs There should be no line spaces between paragraphs. The first paragraph of the article, and of new sections should not be indented; subsequent paragraphs should be indented.

Headings and subheadings Main headings should be in bold and subheadings in italic. Capitalise main words (e.g. Texts Used in This Study). No full point should be used at the end of the line.

Sections Where numbered sections are used, numbers of sections should be followed by a full point and EN space (e.g. 2 ), but subsection numbers should not have a full point (e.g. 2.1).

Spelling Use the system which you are most accustomed to using, but be consistent. British authors, please use Oxford (-ize) spellings. When in doubt, refer to the Concise Oxford Dictionary, or the Oxford Dictionary for Writer and Editors.

Italics and bold Use italic and bold founts; otherwise represent italics by using an underline, and bold by underlining with a wavy line.

Quotations Quotations should be in small type, set full left with a minimum of 5 lines of type. Quotation marks should not be used, except for short quotations within the text in which case single quotation marks should be used. Double quotation marks should be used for quotes within quotes.

Punctuation Endnote cues should always follow punctuation, e.g . . . certain secrets of fabrication. Initials should be followed by a full point and a space, e.g. E. M. Forster, W. H. Smith. There is no full point after Dr, Mrs, Ms, or Mr.

Computer programs A brief outline should be given of what the syntactic rules are for lines of code that are to be typeset and embedded within the text. Alternatively, program code could appear as figures. Authors should then send camera-ready copy of the figures with their text.

Names of computer programs These should appear in capitals or another consistent style.

Words under discussion These should be in italic.

Electronic mail addresses Addresses should appear in lowercase only.

Miscellaneous points of style & should be written out as 'and', and use a % sign for 5%, 25%, etc. No apostrophe in 1920s, 1950s, etc. Decimal point should be on the line: 5.2, 3.9, etc. et al. should be in italic. e.g. and i.e. are never capitalized even at the beginning of a sentence. There should be no comma after e.g. or i.e. Numbers below 100 and vaguely expressed numbers should be spelt out. Precise numbers, units of measurement, and numbers above 100 should be in figures. If mentioned at the beginning of a sentence, spell Figure in full. NB the use of the 'Oxford comma' in the previous sentence (comma before 'and' in lists). Please do likewise. Cross-references in the text should be as follows:

see Section 2.5
see Appendix I
see Fig. 1.

Figures and Tables Authors should supply the electronic versions of figures in either TIFF or Encapsulated PostScript (EPS) format, using PhotoShop compatible software. Many other formats, e.g. Microsoft Powerpoint, Microsoft Postscript and figures embedded in Word files, may be used, although this is not the preferred format.

Figures should be saved in separate files without their captions, which should be included with the text of the article. Files should be named according to DOS conventions, e.g. 'figure1.tif'. For vector graphics, EPS is the preferred format. Lines should not be thinner than 0.25 pts and in-fill patterns and screens should have a density of at least 10%. Font-related problems can be avoided by using standard fonts such as Times Roman and Helvetica. For bitmapped graphics, TIFF is the preferred format but EPS is also acceptable.

The following resolutions are optimal: black-and-white line figures, 600-1200 dpi; line figures with some grey or coloured lines, 600 dpi; photographs, 300 dpi; screen dumps, leave as is. Higher resolutions will not improve output quality but will only increase file size, which may cause problems with printing; lower resolutions (<300 dpi) may compromise output quality. Please try to provide artwork that approximately fits within the typeset area of the journal. Especially screened originals, i.e. originals with grey areas, may suffer badly from reduction by more than 10-15%.

Each figure and table should be numbered and mentioned in the text. Each figure and table should be accompanied by an explanatory legend. The figure legends should be grouped and placed on a separate page.

Colour illustrations: authors will be expected to pay a fee for any colour illustrations appearing in the print version of their article (£350 per figure). Alternatively, figures can appear in black and white in the printed version with colour versions appearing online (for which there is no charge). Please indicate your preferred option (i.e. agreement to pay £350 per figure for print and online colour or preference for online-only colour with no charge) when prompted during the online submission process.

Captions 'Table' should be spelt out in full but 'Figure' should be contracted to Fig. (with full point); both should have an initial capital. The number of the table/figure should not be followed by a full point. The caption itself should have the first word capitalized, and should not be followed by a full point, unless it consists of more than a single sentence, e.g. Table 1 Proper nouns and syntactic organization Fig. 3 Varieties of biblical citations. Please supply table and figure captions as a separate list: do not type on the table/figure itself. To ensure correct matching up of tables/figures to captions, put table/figure number on the back of the artwork, and author's name. The order of items after the main text should be:


Notes All notes should be gathered together at the end of the article, double spaced, on a separate sheet or sheets. They should not consist simply of a bibliographic reference. Notes should be numbered consecutively throughout the text, with numbers inserted above the line, e.g. 1. They should be listed in numerical order at the end of the main text:

1. Smith, T . . .
2. These results . . .

Funding Details of all funding sources for the work in question should be given in a separate section entitled 'Funding'. This should appear before the 'References' section.
The following rules should be followed.

  • The sentence should begin: ‘This work was supported by …
  • The full official funding agency name should be given, i.e. ‘the National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health’ or simply ‘National Institutes of Health' not ‘NCI’ (one of the 27 subinstitutions) or ‘NCI at NIH’ (full RIN-approved list of UK funding agencies) .Grant numbers should be given in brackets as follows: ‘[grant number xxxx]’
  • Multiple grant numbers should be separated by a comma as follows: ‘[grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]’
  • Agencies should be separated by a semi-colon (plus ‘and’ before the last funding agency)
  • Where individuals need to be specified for certain sources of funding the following text should be added after the relevant agency or grant number 'to [author initials]'.

An example is given here: ‘This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [AA123456 to C.S., BB765432 to M.H.]; and the Alcohol & Education Research Council [hfygr667789].’

Oxford Journals will deposit all NIH-funded articles in PubMed Central. See Depositing articles in repositories – information for authors for details. Authors must ensure that manuscripts are clearly indicated as NIH-funded using the guidelines above.

References and Bibliography Please use the version of the Harvard system described below. References should be cited in the text using the author's name and year of publication, e.g. (Bloggs, 1990; Bloggs et al., 1991). The list of references should be headed References and placed at the end of the article on a separate sheet or sheets. It should be double-spaced. The list should be in alphabetical order. Where an author has more than one publication, they should be arranged in chronological order, and if there is more than one publication within a year, they should be alphabetically ordered by title and labelled a, b, etc. (e.g. 1989a, 1989b). Single-author works precede co-authored works. If citing an electronic publication, please supply the full URL and a date accessed. Please follow the examples given below for bibliographic layout.

Biber, D. (1988). Variation Across Speech and Writing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Calzolari, N. (1989). A Typology of English Text. In Batori, I.S., Lenders, W. and Putschke, W. (eds), Computational Linguistics. New York: ACM Press, pp. 510-19.

Ellis, D. (1987). The Derivation of a Behavioural Model for Information Retrieval Design. Ph.D. thesis, University of Sheffield.

Halliday, M. A. K. (1985). An Introduction to Functional Grammar. Edward Arnold, London.

Oostdijk, N. (1988). A Corpus Linguistic Approach to Linguistic Variation, Literary and Linguistic Computing, 3: 12-25.

Richardson, S. D. and Braden-Harder, L. (1988). The Experience of Developing a Large-Scale Natural Language Text Processing System: CRITIQUE, Proceedings of the Second Conference on Applied Natural Language Processing, Austin, TX, February 1988.

Garfinkel, M. S. and Weiss, S. C. (1999). In the court of history, Ehlers v. Bush. Recent Science Newsletter, 1(1): 6-7. (accessed 27 February 2004).

Nerbonne, J. (2005). Computational Contributions to the Humanities. Literary and Linguistic Computing, Advanced Access published January 17, 2005: 10.1093/llcl/fqh041.
Nerbonne, J. (2005). Computational Contributions to Humanities. Literary and Linguistic Computing, 1: 1-16. First published January 17, 2005: 10.1093/llcl/fqh041.


For information about this journal's policy, please visit our Author Self-Archiving policy page.

Oxford Open Option for Authors

Literary and Linguistic Computing authors have the option to publish their paper under the Oxford Open initiative; whereby, for a charge, their paper will be made freely available online immediately upon publication. After your manuscript is accepted the corresponding author will be required to accept a mandatory licence to publish agreement. As part of the licensing process you will be asked to indicate whether or not you wish to pay for open access. If you do not select the open access option, your paper will be published with standard subscription-based access and you will not be charged.

If you choose the Open Access option you can pay the Open Access charges using our Author Services site. This will enable you to pay online with a credit/debit card, or request an invoice by email or post. Open Access charges are £1700/$3000/€2550; discounted rates are available for authors based in some developing countries (click here for a list of qualifying countries). Please note that these charges are in addition to any colour charges that may apply.

Orders from the UK will be subject to the current UK VAT charge. For orders from the rest of the European Union, OUP will assume that the service is provided for business purposes. Please provide a VAT number for yourself or your institution and ensure you account for your own local VAT correctly.