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Instructions for online submissions


All material to be considered for publication should be submitted in electronic form via the Journal's online submission system at:
Given that you can produce a file of your paper through a word processing package of some description, you only need the three following items to access and use the system: access to the website via a web browser, Adobe Acrobat Reader (which can be downloaded free of charge from and an e-mail account.


The URL for LLC's online submission and peer review site is: Please note that there is an Online User Guide (a comprehensive online help system that provides detailed descriptions of every feature and function in Manuscript Central. It also contains printable versions of the user guide, search and index capability, and movie tutorials for basic tasks). It is available from the Get Help Now button on the Manuscript Central site.
You will need a User ID and Password in order to access the online submission site. If you are unsure about whether or not you have an account, or have forgotten your password, enter your e-mail address into the Password Help section on the right-hand side of the log in screen. If you do not have an account, you can create one by clicking on the Create Account link at the top of the log in screen and following the on-screen instructions. If you have problems with your account please do not create another account, please contact the Editor.
Please note that papers submitted via Manuscript Central must be submitted through the account of the corresponding author listed on the paper, not through the account of one of the other authors or the account of a third party who is not on the author list.

All correspondence relating to a submission (e.g. acknowledgement of receipt, communication of decisions etc.) will be sent via e-mail to the corresponding author.

Preparing your manuscript prior to online submission

Please note: This journal does not accept Microsoft Word 2007 documents at this time. Please use Word's "Save As" option to save your document as an older (.doc) file type.

Prepare your manuscript using a word processing program (please see the Article format section). The journal prefers all manuscripts submitted online to be Microsoft Word files (.doc). During the online submission process these will be converted automatically to .pdf files (for peer review). If you are unable to submit a Word file, you can submit manuscripts in other formats, for example as .pdf, .rtf or .ps files. These last two file types will also be converted into .pdf format on submission. pdf files are readable with Adobe Acrobat Reader, which is available for download (free of charge) from the Systems Requirements link on the log in page (as well as from

Microsoft Excel spreadsheets may be uploaded and will be converted into .pdf format. Please note that the uploading of PowerPoint files is barred owing to their large size. Powerpoint slides can be saved as .tif, .jpg or .gif files and then embedded in a document and uploaded.
We prefer that authors upload the text and figure files separately. This applies to the original version of the manuscript and any revised versions. Don't forget to switch on CONTINUOUS line numbering. To do this in Word, use File, Page Setup, Layout, Line Numbers and select continuous line numbering. Please DO NOT insert page numbers (as the pdf proof created by the online submission system will automatically be page numbered).

Please also upload high-resolution versions of your figures as these will be needed on acceptance. High-resolution figures need to be 300 dpi for image-type figures and 600 dpi for line diagrams.

Image files should be saved in one of the following formats - Joint Photographic Experts Group (.jpg); Graphics Interchange Format (.gif); Tagged Image File format (.tif); or Encapsulated PostScript (.eps). When inserting figures into your text documents, please make sure any embedded text is large enough to read. Many figures contain miniscule characters such as numbers on a chart or graph. If these characters are not easily readable in your text document, they will most likely be illegible in the .pdf created by the system. Certain image formats such as .jpg and .gif do not have high resolutions, so you may elect to save your figures and insert them as .tif instead.

Please use short, simple filenames when saving all your documents, and avoid special characters (such as brackets), punctuation marks and symbols (such as &). Also avoid spaces in your filenames. If you are a Macintosh user, in addition to using simple, short filenames when saving your documents, you must type the extension at the end of the file name you choose (.doc, .rtf, .jpg, .gif, .tif, .xls, .pdf, .eps, .mov or .qt).
During the online manuscript submission process you can also upload any other files you might want the Editor/reviewers to have access to, including in-press and submitted papers.

Before you start

Before starting the online submission process please make sure you have the following available:

  • A file with your complete manuscript (i.e. title page, abstract, text, figures and tables) in one of the formats detailed above;
  • If the images are not embedded in your text file (preferred), the image files;
  • The files for any other supplementary material to be submitted with your manuscript;
  • The text of your abstract (can be copied and pasted into the system from your word processor file);
  • Where appropriate, the names and e-mail addresses of all contributing authors.

Submitting your manuscript

1. Go to the website at:

2. If you have a User ID and password for the site, log in. If you are unsure about whether or not you have an account, or have forgotten your password, enter your e-mail address into the Password Help section on the right-hand side of the log in screen. If you do not have an account, you can create one by clicking on the Create Account link at the top of the log in screen and following the on-screen instructions.
If you have problems with your account please do not create another account. Please contact the LLC Editor.

3. Once you have logged in, click on the Author Centre button (as an author, you will use the Author Centre to start the manuscript submission process as well as to track the status of your submitted manuscripts. You can also open recent communications regarding your submission here).

4. On the left-hand side of the Author Centre Dashboard you will see links to all of your manuscripts and their current status. The number indicates the number of manuscripts that fall into each status category. Clicking on the name of any of these status categories will refresh the page to show the detailed list for that category at the bottom of the screen. On the right-hand side of the Author Centre Dashboard is the Author Resources area. This section allows you to begin the submission process for a new manuscript as well as view the 10 most recent emails sent to you from the Manuscript Central site.

5. Click on the Click here to submit a new manuscript link in the Author Resources area. Clicking on this link will take you to step 1 of the seven-step process of submitting a manuscript. The progress bar on the left-hand side of the screen will help you navigate the process.

6. At any stage you can stop the submission process - everything you have typed in to the system will be saved. To continue a submission, click on the Continue Submission icon.

7. The penultimate step in the submission process is to upload your manuscript files.

  • Step 1. Select individual files using the "Browse" buttons and choose the appropriate "File designation".
  • Step 2. Upload your files by clicking on the "Upload files" button. This converts your files to PDFs and may take some time. Repeat these steps if you have more than 3 files.
  • Step 3. Once you have uploaded all files, indicate the order in which they should appear in your paper.
  • Step 4. Inspect the PDF by clicking on a PDF button and if acceptable click "Next". If the files have not been uploaded to your satisfaction you can delete the files you do not want, and repeat the upload/ordering process.

8. The final step in the manuscript submission process is to review all of the information you have entered to this point, and view the PDF proof of the manuscript (if you have not already done so). My Manuscript Information lists each step with its filled-in values. If a step is complete, there will be a green tick next to the step. If it is incomplete, there will be a red cross along with a message indicating exactly what is incomplete. Once you have completed the submission process to your satisfaction click on the Submit button. It is not until this button is clicked that the manuscript and all of the associated information (i.e. contributing authors, institutions, etc.) is linked together and the manuscript is given a manuscript number.

9. If your manuscript has been successfully submitted to the Journal you will see a confirmation screen showing your manuscript ID, please make a note of your manuscript ID and use it in all correspondence. You will also receive an e-mail confirming the submission.
If you do not receive both of these, your manuscript will not have been successfully submitted to the journal and it cannot be progressed through to peer review. If this is the case your manuscript will still be sitting in the Unsubmitted Manuscripts section of your Author Centre awaiting your attention.

10. Once the manuscript submission is complete, you can follow its progress through the peer review process in the Submitted Manuscripts section of your Author Centre.

Revising your manuscript

1. As with all other decisions, you will be notified of a revision decision by e-mail. Please address the Editor's and reviewers' comments in your revised paper, as well as any comments sent to you by the LLC Editor.

2. Log in to the Manuscript Central web site as before and, in the Author Centre, click on the create a revision link in the Manuscripts with Decisions list. This will create a new manuscript record with the same manuscript ID and a ".R1" appended at the end. If a revision is started, the create a revision link will no longer appear in the "Manuscripts with Decisions" list, and the list will display the fact that a revision exists and the revision's Manuscript ID. The option will reappear if you delete the revision before it is actually submitted. The draft of the revised manuscript is located in the Revised Manuscripts in Draft list. Once you click the create a revision link, you will receive a confirmation asking you if you are sure you want to create a new revised manuscript. If you click Cancel, the action will be aborted. If you click OK, you will be taken to the first step in the revision submission process, the View & Respond to Comments step.

3. Please enter your detailed response to the decision letter in the box provided.

4. Proceed through the remaining submission screens (altering any necessary information along the way, such as manuscript type). When you reach the File Upload step revised manuscripts are automatically populated with the files you uploaded with the last version. PLEASE CHECK VERY CAREFULLY AND DELETE AND REPLACE ANY FILES THAT HAVE CHANGED IN THE REVISION. IF YOU ARE IN ANY DOUBT IT IS BEST TO DELETE ALL THE FILES AND UPLOAD THE NEW ONES. Once you have completed the submission process to your satisfaction click on the Submit button. If your revised manuscript is successfully submitted you will receive a confirmatory e-mail.

5. It is essential that authors submitting REVISED manuscripts provide high-resolution versions of ALL their figures. In order for proofs to be produced as quickly and efficiently as possible after acceptance please provide electronic high-resolution images. For further details, please see the link on the Instructions and Forms page of Manuscript Central.

Alternatively, although less desirable, please send one set of high-resolution, glossy prints to LLC Editor at the same time that you submit your revised paper.


If you experience any problems during the online submission please consult the Online User Guide (available from the Get Help Now button on the Manuscript Central site) or contact the LLC Editor.