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NAR Molecular Biology Database Collection entry number 391
Pruitt KD, Brown GR, Hiatt SM, Thibaud-Nissen F, Astashyn A, Ermolaeva O, Farrell CM, Hart J, Landrum MJ, McGarvey KM, Murphy MR, O'Leary NA, Pujar S, Rajput B, Rangwala SH, Riddick LD, Shkeda A, Sun H, Tamez P, Tully RE, Wallin C, Webb D, Weber J, Wu W, Dicuccio M, Kitts P, Maglott DR, Murphy TD, Ostell JM.
National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20894, USA

Database Description

The National Center for Biotechnology Information Reference Sequence (RefSeq) database provides curated non-redundant sequence standards for genomic regions, transcripts (including splice variants), and proteins.
Records are compiled using a combined approach of collaboration, automated methods, prediction, and curation and are extensively integrated with other NCBI resources facilitating navigation and discovery. RefSeq records represent the current best view of genomes and their transcript and/or protein products.

Recent Developments

The RefSeq collection continues to expand apace with genome sequencing projects. The complete collection is provided for FTP in bi-monthly releases ( RefSeq release 18, provided in July 2006, included over 2.7 million protein records and over 3,600 organisms.


1. The NCBI handbook [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US), National Center for Biotechnology Information; 2002 Oct. Chapter 17, The Reference Sequence (RefSeq) Project. Available from
2. Pruitt KD, Tatusova, T, Maglott DR. NCBI Reference Sequence (RefSeq): a curated non-redundant sequence database of genomes, transcripts and proteins Nucleic Acids Res 2005 Jan 1;33(1):D501-D504
3. Pruitt KD, Katz KS, Sicotte H, Maglott DR. Introducing RefSeq and LocusLink: curated human genome resources at the NCBI. Trends Genet. 2000 Jan;16(1):44-47.

Go to the abstract in the NAR 2014 Database Issue.
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