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Manuscript Preparation Instructions

Language editing pre-submission
Online search engine optimization (SEO)
Manuscript format and structure
Journal copyediting style
Figures and illustrations
Permission to reproduce figures and extracts
Supplementary data
Copyright and licence
Advance Access


Please read these instructions carefully and follow them closely to ensure that the review and publication of your paper is as efficient and quick as possible. The Editors reserve the right to return manuscripts that are not in accordance with these instructions.

All material to be considered for publication in Research Evaluation should be submitted in electronic form via the journal's online submission system. Once you have prepared your manuscript according to the instructions below, instructions on how to submit your manuscript online can be found by clicking here.

The Editors acknowledge receipt of papers, and aim to obtain referee-ing reports within eight weeks (when possible). Neither you nor the referee will be told who the other is (unless you clearly refer to your previous papers).

To contact the editorial office, please email:

CWTS, University of Leiden, PO Box 905, 2300 AX Leiden, The Netherlands


360 Innovation, PO Box 51404, Albuquerque, NM 87181, USA

The Editors acknowledge receipt of papers, and aim to obtain referee-ing reports within eight weeks (when possible). Neither you nor the referee will be told who the other is (unless you clearly refer to your previous papers).

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Language editing, if your first language is not English, to ensure that the academic content of your paper is fully understood by journal editors and reviewers is optional. Language editing does not guarantee that your manuscript will be accepted for publication. For further information on this service, please click here. Several specialist language editing companies offer similar services and you can also use any of these. Authors are liable for all costs associated with such services.

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You can improve the online accessibility of your paper by writing optimized copy that is highly indexable across all search engines. A large number of readers find articles online by using search engines such as Google. Most searching is done using keywords or key phrases. Including key phrases that people searching are likely to use should make your article more discoverable. By taking some simple steps to optimize your article for search engines it will help your work to be discovered and read. This may in turn lead to the work being cited in others' work and will further raise the visibility of your article. Future measures, which assess the value of journals and of individual articles based on the number of times they are downloaded, are currently being developed and tested (see and

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Papers can be up to 8,000 - 10,000 words. Please prepare your typescript text using a word-processing package (save in .doc, .docx or .rtf format). Please also include the files for any other supplementary material to be submitted with your manuscript (this material is published online only). It is recommended that authors spell-check all files before submission.

Other helpful hints are: (i) use the TAB key once for paragraph indents; (ii) where possible use Times New Roman for the text font and Symbol for any Greek and special characters; (iii) use the word processing formatting features to indicate Bold, Italic, Greek, Maths, Superscript and Subscript characters; (iv) please avoid using underline: for cases use italic; for emphasis use bold; (v) clearly identify unusual symbols and Greek letters; (vi) where there might be confusion, differentiate between the letter O and zero, and the letters I and l and the number 1.

Please submit a separate document holding the title page. The title page should contain: the title of paper, contributor names, and the full address (including email) of the author designated to receive proofs/correspondence, and total word count. The name of the author(s) should appear at the beginning immediately under the title, with an asterisked footnote giving the present position of the author(s) and an address (including email) for contact by readers, together with any desired acknowledgements and funding.

Please submit an anonymous main document with title and abstract but no author details or acknowledgements.

Headings should be to journal style. Compound words should be hyphenated.

Authors are responsible for checking the accuracy of all footnotes and references.

Title page

The title should be short, specific and informative. The first name, initial(s), and surname of each author should be followed by his or her department, institution, city with postcode, and country. The fax, telephone number and Email address of the corresponding author should also be provided. It is editorial policy to list only one author for correspondence. Any changes of address may be given next to the Affiliations or Acknowledgements. A footnote stating 'The authors wish it to be known that, in their opinion, the first x authors should be regarded as joint First Authors' is permitted if requested. Any deletions or additions to the author list after acceptance of the paper must be submitted in writing, signed by all authors, to the appropriate editorial office.

It is important that authors ensure the following: (i) all names have the correct spelling and are in the correct order (first name, then family name); (ii) initials are correct. Occasionally, the distinction between surnames and forenames can be ambiguous, and this is to ensure that the authors’ full surnames and forenames are tagged correctly, for accurate indexing online.


The main document should contain the Abstract, which must not exceed 250 words. The Abstract should be comprehensible to readers before they have read the paper, and reference citations must be avoided. It is essential that the Abstract clearly states the manuscript’s importance to Research Evaluation.


Non-standard abbreviations should be defined at the first occurrence and introduced only where multiple use is made. Authors should not use abbreviations in headings.


Details of all funding sources for the work in question should be given on the title page in a separate section entitled 'Funding'. The following rules should be followed:

  • The sentence should begin: ‘This work was supported by …’
  • The full official funding agency name should be given, i.e. ‘the National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health’ or simply 'National Institutes of Health' not ‘NCI' (one of the 27 subinstitutions) or 'NCI at NIH’ (full RIN-approved list of UK funding agencies)
  • Grant numbers should be complete and accurate and provided in brackets as follows: ‘[grant number ABX CDXXXXXX]’
  • Multiple grant numbers should be separated by a comma as follows: ‘[grant numbers ABX CDXXXXXX, EFX GHXXXXXX]’
  • Agencies should be separated by a semi-colon (plus ‘and’ before the last funding agency)
  • Where individuals need to be specified for certain sources of funding the following text should be added after the relevant agency or grant number 'to [author initials]'.

An example is given here: ‘This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [P50 CA098252 and CA118790 to R.B.S.R.] and the Alcohol & Education Research Council [HFY GR667789].


Acknowledgements and details of non-financial support must be included on the title page, not the main document. Personal acknowledgements should precede those of institutions or agencies. Please note that acknowledgement of funding bodies and declarations regarding conflicts of interest should be given in separate Funding and Conflicts of interest sections, respectively.

Further guidance on conflicts of interests is available here.


If you use EndNote and Reference Manager to facilitate referencing citations (not required for submission), this journal's style (Oxford HUMSOC) is available for use. If an automatic referencing system has been used in the preparation of the paper, the references must not be left embedded in the final text file submitted.

Full references should be provided in accordance with the style of Research Evaluation.

These should be cited by author date and must be listed alphabetically in the reference list. Journal titles and author initials should be properly abbreviated and punctuated. Page ranges should be truncated. The citation of journals, books, multi-author books and articles published online should conform to the following examples:

  • [Book] Balassa, Bela (1961) The Theory of Economic Integration. London: Allen and Unwin.
  • [Chapter in book] Magarey, M. E. (1988) ‘Examination of the Cervical and Thoracic Spine’. In: Grant R (ed.) Physical Therapy of the Cervical and Thoracic Spine, pp. 81–109. Churchill Livingstone: New York.
  • [Journal article] Stookey, R. W. (1974) ‘Social Structure and Politics in the Yemen Arab Republic’, Middle East Journal, 28/3: 248–60.

For references with 4 or more authors, the first author should be listed, followed by et al. Personal communications (J. Jones, personal communication) must be authorized in writing by those involved, and unpublished data should be cited in the text as (unpublished data). References to manuscripts submitted, but not yet accepted, should be cited in the text as (B. Jones and L. Smith, manuscript in preparation) and should not be included in the list of references. Citations of submitted manuscripts should include all authors involved. Authors are encouraged to cite web URLs in parentheses at the appropriate mention in the text.


All tables should be on separate pages and accompanied by a title, and footnotes where necessary. The tables should be numbered consecutively using Arabic numerals. Units in which results are expressed should be given in parentheses at the top of each column and not repeated in each line of the table. Ditto signs are not used. Avoid overcrowding the tables and the excessive use of words. The format of tables should be in keeping with that normally used by the journal; in particular, vertical lines, coloured text and shading should not be used. Please be certain that the data given in tables are correct.

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This journal follows our standard Oxford HUMSOC style. By following the mini style checklist you can ensure that your manuscript follows the major style points.

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Please be aware that the requirements for online submission and for reproduction in the journal are different: (i) for online submission and peer review, please upload your figures either embedded in the word processing file or separately as low-resolution images (.jpg, .tif, .gif or. eps); (ii) for reproduction in the journal, you will be required after acceptance to supply high-resolution .tif files. Minimum resolutions are 300 d.p.i. for colour or tone images, and 600 d.p.i. for line drawings. We advise that you create your high-resolution images first as these can be easily converted into low-resolution images for online submission.

Figures will not be relettered by the publisher. The journal reserves the right to reduce the size of illustrative material. Any photomicrographs, electron micrographs or radiographs must be of high quality. Wherever possible, photographs should fit within the print area or within a column width.

For useful information on preparing your figures for publication, go to

Colour Illustrations

Authors are required to pay the full cost of reproduction of colour figures. For details see Journal Charges.

Research Evaluation also offers free reproduction of colour figures in the online version (figures in the print version will appear in black and white). If you require colour reproduction of figures in the print journal you will be asked to approve the cost. You will be issued an invoice at the time of publication. Figure captions must be suitably worded to apply to both the print and online versions of the article.

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Permission to reproduce copyright material, for print and online publication in perpetuity, must be cleared and if necessary paid for by the author; this includes applications and payments to DACS, ARS and similar licensing agencies where appropriate. Evidence in writing that such permissions have been secured from the rights-holder must be made available to the editors. It is also the author's responsibility to include acknowledgements as stipulated by the particular institutions. Please note that obtaining copyright permission could take some time. Oxford Journals can offer information and documentation to assist authors in securing print and online permissions: please see the Guidelines for Authors section at Should you require copies of this then please contact the editorial office of the journal in question or the Oxford Journals Rights department on

For a copyright prose work, it is recommended that permission is obtained for the use of extracts longer than 400 words; a series of extracts totalling more than 800 words, of which any one extract is more than 300 words; or an extract or series of extracts comprising one-quarter of the work or more. For poetry: an extract of more than 40 lines; series of extracts totalling more than 40 lines; an extract comprising one-quarter or more of a complete poem.

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Supporting material that is not essential for inclusion in the full text of the manuscript, but would nevertheless benefit the reader, can be made available by the publisher as online-only content, linked to the online manuscript. The material should not be essential to understanding the conclusions of the paper, but should contain data that is additional or complementary and directly relevant to the article content. Such information might include more detailed methods, extended data sets/data analysis, or additional figures.

It is standard practice for appendices to be made available online-only as supplementary data. All text and figures must be provided in suitable electronic formats. All material to be considered as supplementary data must be submitted at the same time as the main manuscript for peer review. It cannot be altered or replaced after the paper has been accepted for publication, and will not be edited. Please indicate clearly all material intended as supplementary data upon submission and name the files e.g. 'Supplementary Figure 1', 'Supplementary Data', etc. Also ensure that the supplementary data is referred to in the main manuscript where necessary, for example as '(see Supplementary data)' or '(see Supplementary Figure 1)'.

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Upon receipt of accepted manuscripts at Oxford Journals authors will be invited to complete an online copyright licence to publish form.

As part of the terms of the licence agreement, Authors may use their own material in other publications written or edited by themselves provided that the journal is acknowledged as the original place of publication and Oxford University Press as the Publisher. As the Author(s), copyright of the Article remains yours (or your employer’s if your employer claims copyright in your work). See here for full details of Oxford Journals' copyright policy and the rights retained by you/your institution under the terms of the licence. Please note that for any content published as part of the Oxford Open program, there is an extended range of rights retained by you as the Author. For more details, please click here.

Details of how to sign the licence using our online system will be sent after acceptance. Work submitted for publication must be original, previously unpublished, and not under consideration for publication elsewhere. If previously published figures, tables, or parts of text are to be included, the copyright-holder’s permission must have been obtained prior to submission. For more information on how to obtain permissions, please consult Rights and Permissions.

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Authors are sent page proofs by email. These should be checked immediately and corrections, as well as answers to any queries, returned to the publishers as an annotated PDF via email or fax within 3 working days (further details are supplied with the proof). It is the author's responsibility to check proofs thoroughly.

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Authors will receive electronic access to their paper free of charge. Printed offprints may be purchased in multiples of 100. Rates are indicated on the order form which must be returned with the proofs.

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Advance Access articles are published online soon after they have been accepted for publication, in advance of their appearance in a printed journal. Appearance in Advance Access constitutes official publication, and the Advance Access version can be cited by a unique DOI (Digital Object Identifier). When an article appears in an issue, it is removed from the Advance Access page.

Articles posted for Advance Access have been copyedited and typeset and any corrections included. This is before they are paginated for inclusion in a specific issue of the journal. Once an article appears in an issue, both versions of the paper continue to be accessible and citable.

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